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75 Cards in this Set

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Why do we study non human primtates?
1. we share ancestry, get to see behavior, and evolutionary past
2. how natural and sexual selection molded
3. they’re interesting
Metatheria
reproduce without placenta (ex. Marsupials)
Prototheria
lay eggs, nurse from nipples (ex. Monotremes)
Eutheria
reproduce with placenta and uterus
What features broadly define order primate?
1. Opposable thumb and big toe
2. Pentadactyly (5 fingers)
3. Flat nails
4. Tactile pads
5. Olfactory recuded
6. Small nose
7. De-emphasis on smell
Dental formula:
incisors, canine, premolars, molars
Primate behavior is important
because it’s adaptation by which a primate survives and reproduces, we see interactions
estrus
period of sexual receptivity where genitals flare to show a girl is ovulating
sex is important for bonobos
because they resolve tension and problems that way.

They’re the most closely linked to humans and compared to chimps, bonobos have larger skulls, canine teeth, and are more slender
Grooming is for bonding and playing
Philopatry
behavior returning to one’s birthplace
Two types of dating techniques
absolute and relative
Stratigraphy
study of order of rock layers and sequence of events they reflect
Lithostratigraphy
study of geologic deposits and their formation
Tephrostratigraphy
study of geologic deposits and chemical fingerprint of volcanic ash used to correlated regions
Biostratigraphy
comparison of fossils to see what layers are older/younger
Law of Superposition
principle that sequence of strata in deposit from top to bottom reflects order of deposition from earliest to latest
Serration
used to place artifacts in chronological order based on similarities in style
Consortship
part of a mating ritual, things you to do court a female
What is the purpose of studying archaeological/paleoanthropological field methods?
o Anything fashioned or altered by a human
o Express facts of human culture
Name and explain the four different types of data that anthropologists use the most.
artifacts, ecofacts, fossils, and features
Midden
a hot spot for garbage disposal area in an archaeological site
Endocast
inside impression
Coprolite
fossilized fecal material
What is taphonomy and what some examples of these processes?
o Context
o Study of processes of site disturbance or destruction
• Geological processes
• Biological Processes
• Knowing the context of a site helps diggers understand everything that has occurred at that site
What are some examples of how organisms are preserved?
o Frozen
o Enclosed in resin such as amber
o Preserved in water
o Mummified in tar pits, peat, oil, asphalt bogs or due to aridity
o Mummified due to cultural processes
What is a site and how can they be created?
o A known or suspected location of human activity in the past that contains a record of that activity
- Site formation
o Stratum (strata)- layers of a site
o Stratified- a site that is used, and reused (multiple layers of occupation)
o Sterile layer- no other individuals have left remains there
What are the different layers in a site called?
Strata
How are sites found?
o Irregularities of the ground surface
o Unusual soil discoloration
o Unexpected variations in vegetation, type, and coloring
o Ethnohistorical data- maps, documents, and folklore
What are the two goals of excavation?
• Recover evidence
• Record exact location of everything
What are the two types of methods used during excavation for recording data?
Metrid and Feature Analysis
Metric Analysis
measure of the material, often used in typology
Feature Analysis
Geographic information systems
o Putting it all into context
o Looking at where the evidence is found, you can get a good idea of the layout of the site (ex. where the dead are buried, where animals are cooked)
What are the three main steps for analyzing artifacts after they have been recovered? What types of different questions do they answer?
o 1. Typological classification
• Divided into broad categories then into smaller categories
o 2. Metric analysis and artifact construction
• Metric analysis: measure of the material, often used in typology
• How was the artifact made: what material? How was it constructed?
o 3. Use wear analysis: looking at how often the artifact was used, and what types of wear and residue is on the tools
Use Wear Analysis
lookin at how often the artifact was used, and what types of wear and residue is on the tools
How are different types of data analyzed differently
CT scans, reconstructions, type analysis
What is GIS and why is this important?
Map feature looking at big pictures so you see it all
Paleomagnetism
magnetic polarity measured in ancient sediments, measures age of site
Radiocarbon dating
measures age since death with isotopes
5730 years in 1/2 life
Potassium/aragon Dating
estimates age of sediments which fossils are found. Works on volcanic rock, not useful for <200,000 years
Uranium Series
Use of decay of uranium to estimate age of calcium carbonate, flowstones, shells, teeth
Thermoluminescence dating
uses heat to measure how much heat is emitted, measures radioactivity accumulated since last heating
Electron spin resonance
uses magnetic fields to measure radioactivity, measures how much accumulated since burial
Dendrochronology
compares patters of tree rings, but can only be used in certain regions.
1st used in Southwest Pueblos
Macroevolution
changes in speciation
Microevolution
changes in allele frequency in a population
Phenetics
species based on overall similarity
Phylogeny
Cladistics
group shares a trait, relies on derived traits, relies on derived traits to distinguish patters on evolution within lineages
cladogram
continental drift
formation of different species, allopatric speciation-broken up, lots of different primates on different continents
1st evidence of life
3.8 BA
stromatolites
laminated rock formed by growth of blue-green algae
Paleocene
65-54 mya
a. 1st evidence of primates
i. Plesiadapiforms
ii. Purgatorius
Eocene
54-38 mya
a. 1st evidence of primates resembling prosimians
b. bone in eye protecting eye
c. omomyoidae: loris//tarsier like, short narrow snout
d. adapoidae: lemur like: 2:1:4:3 dental
Oligocene
38-23 mya
a. 1st fossil anthropoids in Fayum Egypt
b. Aegyptopithecus
Miocene
23-5 mya
a. Extensive radiation of Proconsul (Earliest Hominoid)
b. Dryopithecus: y5 molar, likely ancestor of hominidae
c. Sivapithecus: ancestor to modern organguatan
d. Gigantopithecus: largest primate ever lived, ground dwelling ape
“Toumai” Sahelanthropus tchadensis
6-7 mya
blend of primitive and derived characteristics
Earliest gorilla ancestors
Orrorin Tugenesis
6 mya in Kenya
Walked on 2 legs, we know because of the femur bone
hominin
modern humans
hominid
humans, apes, chimps
bipedalism
walking on 2 legs, neck muscles, spine, rib cage, nuchal place (human faces down) toe in line, femur, hips
Hypothesis to becoming bipedal
1. Energy efficient, not draining as much blood
2. Ecological: ability to see, expanding grasslands
3. Dietary: reaching to trees
4. Sexual selection: frees hands, bring home food, male tallness
Hypothesis for brain size:
1. Technological intelligence and tool use
2. Ecological: navigating through forest
3. Social: politically or socially clever with others
Piltdown man
• Most people wanted to think that large brains were found in England, and they developed first rather than teeth primitive, and that it’s a juvenile, and that they’re ethnocentric.
How do caves form? Why is that important when studying South African caves?
From carbonic acid dissolving limestone, then once water level decreases, they become hollow holes
What general trends do we see throughout early hominin evolution?
Body size, limb proportions, jaws and teeth, skull, face and brain size, postcranial crest
Osteodontokeratic
Tools us by bone tooth and horn
When and where were the first stone tools found? What is the only australopithecine to be remotely associated with stone tools?
1st stone tools used by Australopithecines 2.5-1mya in South Africa
What is the relationship between the gracile and the robust australopithecines?
Robust named based on teeth and skull, post cranially same as short, stocky, reorganization of muscles??????
What characteristics bridge the transition between the australopithecines and Homo?
small cranial capacity, large prognatic crest, flatter face, larger posterior area
Australopithecus sediba
-what are the major characteristics of this species?
• Narrow face, flatter brain, 1/3 size of modern human,
Australopithecus sediba
-why is it so important?
• Transitional primitive and derived traits, it’s the link between austrolopithecanus and genus homo.
What are the enamel thickness of humans and apes
Humans are bicker than apes cuz of diet
Who are the two oldest fossils we discussed that are remote possibilities for our earliest living ancestors
Ardipithecus ramidus and kadabba
What is SO remarkable about ardipithecus ramidus
They found ecofacts with him that suggested he lived in trees disproving the hypothesis that primates evolved to be upright to exploit the savannah
Who names the group australopithecines and what are their characteristics
Raymond Dart

Small obligate bipeds, large jaws and teeth, scavengers/gatherers
Who two groups of australopithecines existed?
Robust and Gracile