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66 Cards in this Set

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laid the foundation of modern evolutionary theory with his concept that all life developed through natural selection
charles darwin
theory that because of the food-supply problem described by Malthus, the young born to any species intensely compete for survival. Those young that survive to produce keep favorable natural variations that are passed on by heredity
natural selection
introduced that all related organisms are descended from common ancestors
charles darwin
provided support for older concept that Earth is not static but evolving
charles darwin
english amateur geologist that found Piltdown Man
charles dawson
fossilized cranium found at Barkham Manor new Lewes in Sussex in 1910-1912
piltdown man
pioneer of movement called "New Archaeology"
lewis binford
theory that american archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing
New archaeology
thought that with the use of the scientific method we could get past limits of the archaeological record and learn about how people who used the artifacts lived
lewis binford
dutch anatomist and geologist that discovered the remains of java man
Eugene debois
the first known homo erectus fossil
Java man
had a small brain, massive browridge, a flat, retreating forehead, massive jaw, and other apelike features, upright posture, bipedal
java man
what made eugene debois argue that java man was b/t apes and humans?
he had a small brain (apelike) but an upright posture (humanlike)
recognized humanlike features of taung skull (recovered in South Africa)
raymond dart
confirmed charles darwin's prediction that ancestral hominin forms would be found in africa
raymond dart
made taung new genus and species: Australopithecus africanus, or "southern ape of africa"
raymond dart
place where partial skeletons of australopithecus afarensis was found
Kada Hadar, ethiopia
skeleton found in 1970s in Kada hadar, ethiopia by donald johanson and his team
Lucy
remains showed that bipedalism came before increased brain size
Lucy
one of the world's richest sources of info on physiology and habitats of hominin species
kada hadar, ethiopia
site of well preserved hominin fossils from 2.1-1.3 mya called koobi fora geologic formation
lake turkana, kenya
site of stone tools from 2 mya that resemble Oldowan industry artifacts from olduvai gorge in tanzania
lake turkana, kenya
one nearly complete skeleton of 11-13 year old male called turkana boy
lake turkana, kenya
what remains found at lake turkana, kenya show that homo habilis and homo erectus coexisted here?
1.55 mya skull of homo erectus and 1.44 mya jawbone of homo habilis
site of deposits from 2.1 mya-15,000 years ago and the remains of more than 60 hominins
olduvai gorge, tanzania
often called the "cradle of mankind"
olduvai gorge, tanzania
archaeological sites of Oldowan industry
olduvai gorge, tanzania
why is olduvai gorge, tanzania often called the cradle of mankind?
it has the most continuous known record of human evolution, it has the remains of more than 60 hominins, it has the longest known archaeological record of the development of stone-tool industries
site where mary leakey discovered skull fragments of early hominins with huge teeth (vegetarian), showing that hominins evolved in africa
olduvai gorge, tanzania
most famous specimen of australopithecus from 3.2 mya. 40 % complete skeleton of an adult female
lucy
first fossil of australopithecus africanus
taung child
3-4 year old child fossil with ape-sized brain 1/3 size of modern humans, humanlike teeth, from 2.4 mya
taung child
ape-sized brain, but foramen magnum at base of skull reveals posture of upright human
taung child
small brain made people reject it as a human ancestor, but later disoveries proved that human evolution began with adoption of bipedalism
taung child
proposed species of extinct hominin that was discovered in england 1910-192 by charles dawson on barkham manor
piltdown man
fraudulent fossils
piltdown man
what were piltdown fossils actually?
reexamination in 1953-1954 showed piltdown was skillfully disguised modern human cranium, jaw and teeth of an orangutan, tooth of a chimp
why was piltdown so eagerly accepted?
fossils suggested that british isles had been an important site of early human evolution
discovered in deposits of east africa from 3.8-2.9 mya
australopithecus afarensis
main fossil sample from kada hadar, ethiopia
australopithecus afarensis
lucy: 40 % complete skeleton of adult female
australopithecus afarensis
at least 9 adults and 4 juveniles of this type were found buried together-shows companionship
australopithecus afarensis
huge cheek teeth, massive jaws, powerfully built cheekbones that project forward, larger brain than a. africanus
australopithecus robustus
fossils from 2.2-1.3 mya
australopithecus robustus
the most ancient representative of Homo
homo habilis
inhabited parts of sub-saharan africa 2-1.4 mya
homo habilis
first fossils found at olduvai gorge in northern tanzania (1959-1960)
homo habilis
development b/t australopithecus and homo species
homo habilis
why were homo habilis important?
they were found in tanzania, africa and before their discovery everyone thought humans originated in asia where homo erectus was found
diff. from australopithecus b/c it had increased cranial capacity, smaller molar and premolar teeth, humanlike foot, hand bones that oculd make tools
homo habilis
name means "handy man"
homo habilis
simple stone tools found with fossils
homo habilis
name means "upright man"
homo erectus
medium stature, walked upright, low braincase, receded forehead, wide nose, jaws, palate
homo erecuts
flourished until 200,000 years ago before gave way to homo sapiens
homo erectus
perhaps an ancestor of modern man
homo erecuts
java man was first known fossil
homo erecuts
modern human beings
homo sapiens
most recent archaic humans (200,000-100,000 years ago)
neanderthals
inhabited eurasia
neanderthals
replaced by modern humans between 35,000-28,000 years ago
homo erectus
after WW II viewed as quite close evolutionarily to modern humans
neanderthals
some say they are an evolutionary dead end, others say they are direct ancestors of modern european and western asian populations
neanderthals
our physical characteristics as animals and our unique non-biological characteristics we call culture
anthropology
members of the human lineage (humans, extinct humans, great apes)
hominins
the great apes
hominids