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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
vocal system consisting of a limited amount of sounds, primate language
call systems
basic featurs of language; the ability to speak of things and events that are not present
displacement
the existence of high "formal" and low "informal/"familial" dialects of a single language
diglossia
basic feature of language; the ability to use the rules of one's language to create new expressions comprehensible to other speakers
productivity
the study of sounds used in speech
phonology
study of form (in linguistics, the study of morphemes and word construction)
morphology
study of speech sounds in general; what people actually say in various languages
phonetics
study of the sound contrasts (phonemes) of a particular language
phonemics
study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
kinesics
unit of linguistics consisting of a word or word ending
morpheme
vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meanings
lexicon
arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences
syntax
significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs
phoneme
arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences
syntax
theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking
sapir-whorf hypothesis
study of lexical (vaocabulary) contrasts and classifications in various languages
ethnosemantics
study of relationsips between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context
sociolinguistics
Berlin and Kay's study, in which they determined that there are ten basic color terms that appear in languages in a consistent order, is an example of the study of:
ethnosemantics
The use of a falsetto voice by women in Japan is an example of:
style shift
the proper language is a strategic resource to its user.
principle of linguistic relativity
cross-cultural comparison; the comparative study of ethnographic data, society, and culture
ethnology
fieldwork in a particular culture
ethnography
Which is not an example of applied anthropology?
sociolinguistics
two findings - core of anth
1. range of variation in all aspects
2. some human aspects are remarkably uniform from culture to culture
a capacity for culture
humanity
system of symbols; set of symbolically based rules for thought and behavior
culture
developed philosophy of signs
charles pierce
simplest sign; looks like the thing it stands for
icon
something associated with the thing it refers to
index
relationship is arbitrary with the thing it refers to, only a cultural reference
symbol
lion showing teeth when angry is an example of
indexical communication
linguist who talked about design features of human language, made 16 design featurs
charles hocket
language is not iconical or indexical
arbitrariness
you can produce the same message you just recieved
interchangability
can send any kind of message
specialization
there are 2 different levels of rules to organize speech
1. meaningless sounds to meaningful words
2. words into meaningful grammatical utterences
duality of patterning
language must be learned from other human beings
cultural transmission
speakers may not get the word always right, but the hearer decides what word it is supposed to be and believes that one
discreetness
four subfields of linguistics
phonemics, morphemics, syntactics, semantics
study of sound and how sounds are put togehter
phonemics
study of words and other meaningful parts of language
morphemics
study of grammar
syntactics
study of meaning
semantics
borrowing of cultural traits between societies; direct, forced, and indirect
diffusion
occurs from continuous first hand contact between groups, leads to an exchange of cultural features; two cultures blend but remain unique
acculturation
a culture makes a solution to a problem
independent invention
grooves on roof of mouth that have an acoustic purpose
alveolar ridge
only one sound is replaced and the words are different
minimal pairs
puff of air leaves the mouth
aspirated
contrasts such as aspirated vs unasp, about 15 total
distinctive features
vocal cords not vibrating
vocal cords vibrating
unvoiced
voiced
flow of air completely stopped
stop
flow of air not stopped but constricted to make air turbulence
fricative
smallest unit of sound that does not have its own meaning
phoneme
smallest unit of sound with its own meaning
morpheme
two kinds of morphemes
1. words
2. parts of words, cannot occur along
free
bound
refers to something in the world ex love run blue quickly
lexical morpheme
no meaning outside of the sentence, show how lexical morphemes fit together
grammatical morphemes
change the tense, not the type of word
inflectional affixes
compound where words remain apart even though meaning is not predictable from each word ex red herring
idiom
famous linguist, said colorless green ideas sleep furiously. (meaning has nothing to do with grammar), made transformational grammar
noam chomsky
suggests that in every sentence we have a basic structure produced by phrase structural rules and lexical insertion rules
transformational grammar
study of meaning
semantics
said physical changes are passed on to the next generation
lamarck
came up with the same idea of natural selection as darwin but didnt agree one everything
wallace
primate traits
grasping, nails not claws, fingerprints
pictures that dont look like the things they represent
idiographs
indentations to make symbols to make a word
kuneiform
each syllable has its own symbol
syllabary
this turns off the ability to learn language after puberty
epigenetic rules