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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the measurement of different aspects of the body, such as stature and skin
a human group defined in terms of sociological, cultural, and linguistic traits
ethnic group
Stipulates that body size is larger in colder climates to conserve body temperature
Bermann's Rule
Stipulates that in warmer climates, the limbs of the body are longer relative to body size to dissipate body heat
Allen's Rule
hole in occipital bone through which the spinal cord attaches to the brain
foramen magnum
flattened bony area of the occipital posterior to the foramen magnum, to which neck muscles attach
nuchal plane
pair of bones that compose the lateral parts of the pelvis; each is made up of 3 bones that fuse during adolescence
innominate bones
where the femur attaches to the pelvis
the enlarged inferior end of the femur that forms the top of the knee joint
femoral condyles
why bipedalism?
-energy efficient compared to knuckle walkers
-ecological influences-travel farther for food so use less energy
-picking food from trees
-mating-look more impressive if standing up
having teeth that are uniform in form, shape and function
tooth array in which different teeth have different forms and functions
combination of canine and first premolar tetth that form a self-sharpening apparatus
CP3 Complex
bony ridges on the skull to which muscles attach
cranial crests
Time: Sahelanthropus Tchadensis
7.0 - 6.0 MYA
Time: Orrorin Tugenesis
6.0 MYA
Time: Ardipithecus Ramidus
4.4 MYA
Time: Ardipithecus Kadabba
5.8 - 5.2 MYA
Time: Australopithecus Anamensis
4.2 - 3.9 MYA
Time: Australopithecus Afarensis
3.9 - 2.9 MYA
Time: Australopithecus Garhi
2.5 MYA
Time: Australopithecus Africanus
3.5 - <2.0 MYA
Time: Australopithecus Aethiopicus
2.7-2.5 MYA
Time: Australopithecus Boisei
2.3 - 1.2 MYA
Time: Australopithecus Robustus
2.0 - 1.5 MYA
when meat evolved in the diet
1.8 MYA with Homo erectus
fossilized feces
Time: Holocene
10 kya to now
Time: Pleistocene
1.8 mya - 10 kya
Time: Pliocene
5 mya - 1.8 mya
Order of the Epochs of the tertiary, starting with the oldest
could be the earliest primate and when
plesiadapiforms in paleocene
earliest True Primates
Omomyids and Adapids
like modern tarsiers; small, insectivores - haplorine ancestor
like modern lemurs; larger, fruit and leaves - strepsirrhine ancestor
one of the earliest apes, looks like a monkey without a tail
Gracile australopiths
anamensis, afarensus and africanus
Robust australopiths
bosei, robustus and aethiopicus
earliest tool complex, used by australopithecus
closest relatives to primates
tree shrews, colugos (flying lemur), then bats
mineralized remains of a once living organism
systematic accumulation of genetic changes that can be used to estimate the time of divergence between two groups if relative rates are constant and a calibration point from the fossil record is available
molecular clock
how do angiosperms help make new niches
angiosperms evolve in cretaceous, have a seed dispersal with fruits, create primate niches
earliest anthropoids crome from where, and when
Fayum, Egypt in the eocene
Time: Homo habilis/rudolfensis
2.3 - 1.8 MYA
Time: Homo erectus
1.8 - 900,000
Time: Archaic Homo sapiens
600,000 - 125,000
Time: Homo neanderthalensis
150,000 - 27,000
Time: Homo sapiens
200,000 - present
Time: bipedality
Time: Big Brain
400,000 ya
carrying angle called
valgus angle
taung baby traits
biped, less forehead recession than apes, human like canine, adult is size of bonobo, ancestor is A. africanus
piltdown man
hoax, jaw from orangutan and cranium from modern human
3 ft tall, small brain, A. afarensis
A. Afarensis
short ape like arms, long ape like legs, ape like chest, human like pelvis, small brain, no diastema, sub nasal prognathism
A. Africanus
small brain, less prognathic, saggital crests,k sexually dimorphic
A. aethiopicus
earliest robust, large cranial crests, small brain, very prognathic
How is homo defined?
brain larger than 600cc, makes tools, bipeds
homo habilis
makes oldowan tools
homo rudolfensis
775cc, same time as habilis, bigger teeth
oldowan tool types
stone chopper, hammer, scrapper
study of fossilization, preservation, modification, and archaeological processes
first and only fossil chimp
just some teeth, 500,000 ya
are habilis and rudolfensis A or H?
A: brain size, sexual dimorphism, arboreality
H: tools, brain size, teeth, bipedal limb proportions
robust diet
plant corms and tubers and termites
a. garhi/homo diet
marrow meat and plants
homo erectus
larger cc, thick browridges, strong occipital torus, thick cranial bones, long flat low braincase
brow ridges AKA
supra-orbital torus
homo ergaster
first hominid outside of africa, same as the earliest homo erectus, oldowan and acheulean tools
nariokotome boy
11 years old, very tall, no arboreal traits, robust bone and muscle attachment
H. ergaster/erectus language
small thin spinal cord, not like humans, small vertebral foramen
acheulean tools
bifaces, handaxes, picks
movius line
no acheulean east of the line
homo and australopith teeth comparison
homo is much sharper
KNM-ER 1808 Homo erectus skeleton
female with bad bone bleeding disease- proves they took care of each other
The fossil Nariokotome boy revealed that Homo erectus
had a very modern postcranial anatomy
The earliest known Homo species is
Which trait distinguishes early Homo from Australopithecus?
less facial prognathism and smaller teeth
Studies of Oldowan tools suggest that they were used primarily for
removing meat from bones as well as cracking open bones
The earliest known stone tool industry is called
Based on distributions of stone tools and butchered bones, there appear to be three kinds of sites associated with Oldowan tools; home bases, butchering sites, and
quarrying sites
Recent interpretations of how early Homo acquired meat would suggest that _______ was a tactic used to acquire meat from large carcasses.
active scavenging
Recent evidence shows that Homo erectus had migrated outside Africa by
1.7 mya
Some scientists prefer to call early Homo erectus specimens from Africa by the name ________.
Homo ergaster
Homo erectus brain sizes range from _______ to _______ .
700 cc, 1200 cc
A signature characteristic of Homo erectus skulls are
very large browridges
The Nariokotome boy is famous because
it is the most complete Homo erectus skeleton
Homo erectus is eventually found in all the following places EXCEPT
North America
The earliest Homo erectus finds from outside Africa come from
Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia
At Ngandong in eastern Java Homo erectus fossils have been dated to as young as
80,000 years ago
The Acheulean stone tool industry is typified by _________.
hand axes
From the neck down, Homo erectus most resembles
modern humans
The diet of Homo erectus contains more _______ than the diets of previous hominids.
Based on analysis of teeth, Homo erectus seems to have developed to maturity
more rapidly than modern humans
Classifications based on fossil evidence call human ancestral species _______; classifications based on molecular evidence call them ________.
hominids, hominins
The large anterior teeth of apes and hominids compared to modern humans make their faces ____________ compared to modern humans.
more prognathic
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that separates ape dentition from hominid dentition?
a 2:1:3:3 dental pattern
Hominids probably first appeared between
between 10 and 6 million years ago
Most early hominid fossils come from
Eastern Africa and Southern Africa
Which of the following is a possible root hominid for the human line?
Australopithecus anamensis
The loss of cranial crests in hominids over represents
a de-emphasis on heavy chewing
The Afar Triangle is located in
The earliest species in the genus Australopithecus is
Which of the following is NOT true of the genus Australopithecus?
it has a cranial capacity comparable to African apes
Despite expectations to the contrary, Ardipithecus lived in a(n) _________ environment.
a forested environment
The hominid fossil "Lucy" belongs to which Australopithecine species?
Australopithecus afarensis shows ________ sexual dimorphism.
Australopithecine sexual dimorphism suggests that
australopithecines lived in multi-male, multi-female groups
In East Africa, _________ has been associated with stone tools.
Australopithecus garhi
The Taung child is a member of which Australopithecine species?
Australopithecines lived between
4 and 1.5 million years ago
The existence of multiple hominid species in the same environments at the same time can best be explained by
The earliest archaic Homo sapiens remains in Europe come from _______ and date to about ________ years ago.
Gran Dolina Spain, 800,000
Archaic Homo sapiens have cranial capacities in the range of
1000-1400 cc
In Africa archaic Homo sapiens are known to date from around
600,000 years
Archaic Homo sapiens were probably present in Asia by
200,000 years ago
Middle Stone Age stone tool industries differ from earlier stone tools in that
they used prepared cores
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Middle Stone Age tool industries?
composite tools are the most common tool type
Some evidence for big game hunting during the Middle Pleistocene come from
Boxgrove, England
Neandertals lived from about _______ to ________ years ago.
150,000, 27,000
Neandertals have NOT been found in
East Asia
Based on the number of sites found, and the length of time inhabited by Neandertals, the core of the Neandertal range is
Western Europe
The traits that distinguish Neandertals show that they were
cold weather adapted
Neandertal cranial capacities
on average exceed those of modern humans
The "swept back" appearance of Neandertal cheeks is due to
mid-facial prognathism
Stable isotope ratios indicate that Neandertals were more reliant on ______ in their diet than modern humans.
Archaeological evidence does NOT exist for which of the following Neandertal behaviors?
personal adornment
The "lumper's" perspective places greater emphasis on ______ than the "splitters's" perspective.
interspecies variation
Which of the following does NOT distinguish anatomically modern Homo sapiens from archaic Homo sapiens and Neandertals?
greater cranial capacity
_____________ models of human origins rely more heavily on gene flow than other models.
__________ models predict that modern humans should appear first in Africa.
The presence of a long pubic ramus would suggest a genetic contribution by Neandertals to modern humans if
a long pelvic ramus is not found in Homo erectus
The earliest modern human fossils currently known come from
Herto, Ethiopia
The earliest cranial remains of anatomically modern humans suggest _______ and post-cranial remains suggest________.
human-Neandertal mixing, no human-Neandertal mixing
The presence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Australia by 50,000 years ago suggests
early modern humans used some form of water transportation
Compared to MSA stone tools, Upper Paleolithic tool technologies
were more standardized
Stone tools assemblages from early African sites such as Mumba, Tanzania and Howieson's Poort, South Africa suggest
that technologies evolved more slowly and over a longer period of time than originally thought
Comparisons of tooth wear in Neandertals and early modern humans suggest that
humans exploited a much more varied diet than Neandertals
The source population for settlement of the Polynesian Islands seems to be
a mixed Asian and New Guinean population
The earliest rock art known is in
___________ is perhaps the most prolific form of symbolic behavior in the Upper Paleolithic.
personal ornamentation
Both mtDNA and Y chromosome studies support the hypothesis that
that the most recent common ancestor can be traced to Africa at about 180,000 years ago
Comparisons of Neandertal and human DNA have all shown that
Neandertals probably contributed no genes to modern human populations
Fossils from __________ provide the best evidence for the multiregional model of human origins.
Asia and Australia
At the current time, the bulk of fossil and molecular evidence strongly supports
neither the multiregional nor the replacement model of human origins
Identifying the most recent common ancestor of contemporary human populations is difficult because
different phylogenetic trees can be constructed from the data
MRCA may or may not be an anatomically modern human
danting must be done as a seperate process and calibrated