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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-traditional explanation
-adaptation to tree living
-prehensile hand adapting to climbing
Aboreal Hypothesis
-most primates are quadrupedal
-use of all four limbs
-majority are aboreal
simplified classification primate order includes two major divisions(suborders), what are they?
what is a prosimian?
lemurs, lorises and traditionally tarsier-probable anthropoid
most primitive primate
Lemurs are from?
Madagascar, off the coast of Africa
what is a suborder of anthropoids?
monkeys, apes, and humans
these animals have prosimian traits, certain anthropoid features, including biochemical similarities
what do anthropoids consist of?
-new world monkeys
-old world primates including old world monkeys, hominoids, lesser apes, great apes and hominids
these animals are divided into two large groups, new and old world
these animals are arboreal (trees) quadrupedal and some use prehensile tails
new world monkeys
these animals are the most widely distrubuted primate residing in Africa, Asia, and Japan
Old world monkeys
these animals live in tropical forests, semiarid deserts, snow-covered areas, and some live on the ground
Old World monkeys
characteristics are different from monkeys and have larger body size, absence of a tail, shortened trunks, and more complex behavior
they are the smallest "lesser" apes and are brachiation (arm swinging)
Gibbons and Siamangs
Great apes include
Orangutan, Gorillas, and Chimps
they live in heavily forested areas of Indonesian islands
they are the largest primates living in the forests of central africa, exhibit sexual dimorphism, primarily terrestrial, knuckle walking, and vegetarian
they are equatorial Africa, knucke walking, omnivores and "termite fish"
Similar to chimps, but are a subspecies called "pygmy chimpanzee"
habitually bipedal hominid
only living species of the family Hominidae
is learned; not passed through generations, not boilogical, not applied to just humans and the term "cultural primaology" is used
Primate Cultural Behavior
when learned behaviour is passed to offspring and a "____ _____" may emerge for a group or species
Cultural Tradition
chimp tool use
1)termite fishing
2)leaf sponges
3)hammerstones and platforms are used to crack nuts
Chimpanzee "Cultural" Behavior
only chimps habiually makes and uses tools, there are regional variations of tools used, and regional dietary preferneces for chimps
Regional Variation
have involuntarily learned different alarm calls for paricular predators like snakes, eagles, and leopards
vervet monkey language skills
physchologists report that they can learn to interpret visual signs and use then in communication
Ape language
Why can't apes learn to speak?
because of the anatomy of their vocal track and the language related structures in the brain
attempts to teach chimps to speak failed and experimented with other methods
Experiments in Primate Communication
infant chimp taught ASL
Chimp taught to recognize plastic chips as symbols
a gorilla that learned 500 different ASL signs
chimp that couls use a computer keyboard
study of behavior in free ranging primates from ecological and evolutionary perspective
Evolution of Behavior
Evolution of behavior includes the relationships between ___, ___, and _____
behaviors, the natural environment, and biological traits of species studied
the relatinship between organisms and all aspects of environment like food resources and predators
Ecological study of behavior
subject to natural selection, influenced by genes, and focuses on the ralationship b/t behaviours in the natural environment, and biological traits of the species
Behavioral ecology
These are the results of natural selection in specific habitats and is one of he major topics in primate research
Primate Social Structure
Factors that influence social structure
body size, distrubution of resources, and predation
____ require fewer claories by weight are better able to retain heat and energy requirements are less
larger animals
primates are vulnerable to many types of predators and where this is high, communities are advantageous
distribution of resources includes?
abundant leaves support large groups, fruits and nuts support smaller groups (tend to be protective of resources)
many primate societies are organized into ______ hierarchies
____ solve major adaptive problems in a "social context", reinforce group integrity, and includes dominance, communication, aggression, affiliation and altruism
Primate Social Behavior
raised body hair is an example of ______ response
_____ communicate emotional states that can be elaborate, complicated, and repatitive. a gorilla slapping his chest is an example
_____ is used often to protect individual or group resources
primate groups are associated with a ___ ___ where they remain permenantly
Home Range
it's popular within the home range, contains the most resources, and it's the portion defended against intrusion
core area
many behaviors minimize violence and reinforce bonds b/t individuals and enhance group stabability
affiliation and altruism
social practice common among primates and reinforces social relationships
behaviors that benefit another while posing a risk to oneself
what are the four levels of primate evolution?
prosimians, anthropoids, hominoids, and hominids
how far back do the roots of primate order go back?
to the beginning of placental mammal radiation
placental mammal radiation began ____ years ago during the ____ epoch which resulted in the ___ ___ ___.
65 million; paleocene; earliest primates diverging
during the Ecocene period the earliest ____ ____ appear of modern aspect. the fossils were found in ___ ___ and ___ and were mostly extinct by the end of ___.
definite primates; North America and Europe; Ecocene
some ecocene primates are ancestors of ___ such as ___, and ___ and some are ancestors of ___
prosimians; lemurs, and lorises; tarsiers
in the ____ epoch most of the fossils found were "old world ___"
Oligocene; anthropoids
Oligocene fossils were primarily found in ___, Egypt, including the genera ___ and ______
Fayum; Apidium, and Aegyptopithecus
adipiums are ___ in size near or before the evolutionary divergence of ___ and ___
small; Old and New
Aegyptopithecus are ancestral to Old world ___ and ___
monkeys and hyominiods
during the ___ epoch there was spectacular ___ radiation. fossils were found in ___, ___, and ___
Miocene; hominiod; africa, asia and europe
___ is the best known genus of the early ___ ___ in Africa.
Proconsul; early Miocene
___ is thge best known form of the European Genus
___ forms are the largest varied group of ___ fossil hominiods and ___ is the best known genus
Asian; Miocene; Sivapithecus
the miocene hominiods are most derived to be ___ of living forms except ___ may be linked to the orangutan
ancestors; sivapithecus
new discoveries show earliest hominiods date back to the end of ___ in the period of __-____
Miocene; Plio-Pleistocene
characteristics of a hominid include ___ locomotion, and large ___, and ___ making
bipedal; brain; tool
then physiological and behaviorial systems evolve at different rates
"mosiac evolutionary patterns"
___ is the most distinctive human behavior feature made possible by ___
culture; biology
paleoanthropologists reconstruct the ___, ___, and ___ of our early ancestors
anatomy, behavior, and ecology
the two types of dating methods are ___ and ___
relative and chronometric
this type of dating determins only whether an object is older or younger than other objects
this type of dating provides an estimate of age in years based on radioactivity decay
dating technique based on the law of superposition that a lower stratum (layer) is older than a higher stratum
dating technique that applies to buried bones and groundwater seepage. the longer the bones are underground the more ___
flourine analysis
uses fossils of better known animals to help date associated hominid remains such as pigs, rodents and baboons
shifting of the geomagnetic pole, magnetic particles act as ancient compass and point to location of pole when the rock was formed
provides an estimate of age in actual number of years, most are "radiometric" and based on rate of radioactivity
chronometric/absolute dating
heating "resets" clock, volcanic rock in east africa, dates rock - not bone, and is used for old events to age of earth
potassium/argon (K decays into Ar)
radiometric method used by archeologists to date organic material (bone, wood) and is relevant for later stages of hominid evolution
counts tracks left in crystalline rocks as uranium atoms disintegrate
fossils are divided into what three categories?
1. basal/pre-australopithecus 2. australpithicines; early primative, and later derived 3. early homo
in what mountainous area, the volcanic material was good for dating and fossils were exposed from erosion?
the east african rift valley?
in what area were fossils inbeded in rock material and difficult to date?
South Africa
these earliest remains of hominids in chad, africa are about 7 million years old
oldest basal hominid of the late Miocene in east africa
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
a basal hominid. Genus assigned to early aramis fossils
ardipithecus ramidus
there were maybe 8 species of this well known diverse genus in south, central and east africa
this female australopithecus was found in hadar. The oldest (2.5 mya) stone tools were also found
"lucy" australopithecus afarensis
fossilized hominid of this bipedal species were found in an ancient volcanic bed
In east africa, tanzania a deep 25 mile ravine was the site Lous and Mary Leakey conducted excavationd from 1930's -80's
Olduvai Gorge
the earlist hominid site discovered in Gorge is ___ years old and contained ____ and ___ ___
1.85 million; Australopithecines, and early homo
the homo habilis were early ____ and are the probable ancestor to ___ ___ an dlived at the same time as _____
toolmakers; homo sapiens; australopithecus
the first australopithecine between ___ and ___ was discovered in Taung, Africa. The ___ ___ was under the skull, they walked ___ and had a ___ brain
apes and humans; foramen magnum; upright; small
_____ were found at Sterkfontein, Drimolen, and Swartkrans on South Africa, and ___ is difficult
Australopithicines; dating
South African Hominid remains were mostly found in ___ caves and the fossils were divided into ___ and ___
limestone; "robust" and "gracile"
have small brains, broad heavy face, large premolars and teeth, sagital crest on head, and ate heavier vegetables
"robust" australopithicines
smaller teeth, lighter face, australopithicus africanus
"gracile" australopithicines
the Plio-Pleistocene Hominids from south and east africa are divided into what four groupings?
1. basal hominids
2. early primitive australopithicines
3. later more derived australopithicines
4. early homo
three genera, Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus, Bipedal with primitive feet
Pre-australopithicicus/basal hominids
one genus, several species, bipedal, two sets are recognized, one eing anamensis
early primitive/later more derived australopithicines
possess a large brain and smaller teeth
early homo