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53 Cards in this Set

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What does interstitial tissue do?
produces testosterone which gives male characteristics
What do the seminiferous tubules do?
The site where spermatogenesis occurs
What are the functions of the scrotum?
houses and protects the testicles, and regulates temperature of testicles usually 3 to 13 degrees (F) lower than body temperature
What is unilateral cryptorchidism?
One testicle does not descend from the inguinal canal
What is bilateral cryptorchidism?
When neither testicle descends from the inguinal canal
What are the functions of the epididymis?
storage of sperm cells, provision of maturation space for sperm cells, and nutrition of sperm cells through secreted substances
What is the function of the vas deferens?
Carries sperm cells and substances from the epididymis to the urethra
What is the enlarged portion of the vas deferens called?
ampulla
What are the accessory sex glands?
seminal vesicle, prostate, and Bulbo-urethral glands
What are the functions of the accessory sex glands?
secreting nutrients, secreting buffers, and secreting substances to cleanse and lubricate urethra
What is the sigmoid flexure?
a retractable muscle
Where are the ovaries located in mammals?
Just back of the kidneys
What is the function of the ovaries?
Oogenesis
What hormones do the ovaries produce?
estrogen, progesterone, and relaxin
Where does fertilization occur in mammals?
the oviduct
What are the functions of the uterus?
Sperm movement, nourishment (uterine milk), attachment and nourishment of fetus via placenta, and contractions force fully developed fetus to outside
Which ovary is the only one functional in birds?
the left ovary
What part of the oviduct secretes the chalaziferous layer and vitelline membrane?
Infundibulum
What part of the oviduct secretes most of the albumen layers?
Magnum
What part of the oviduct secretes the inner and outer shell membranes?
Isthmus
What part of the oviduct secretes the shell?
Shell gland
What are the functions of the vagina in a bird?
Secretes substances that act as the cuticle, also has crypts to catch sperm cells and store them
Where is the semen deposited in swine and horses?
The uterus
Where is semen deposited in most animals including cattle, sheep, and goats.
The vagina
Where is semen deposited in birds?
Cloaca
What is the acrosome?
On the head of the sperm cell contains genetic material
What is capacitation?
When the acrosome becomes activated and is able to penetrate the eggs outer covering
What is the egg's outer covering called?
Zona pellucida
What does the yolk sac do?
Provides early nutrients (uterine milk) and degenerates after a few days
What is the amnion?
A sac that surrounds the fetus, filled with fluid, protects the fetus and absorbs shock, and does not fuse with anything else
What is the chorion?
surrounds the amnion sac
What is the allantois?
As the yolk sac degenerates, the allantois takes on the function of absorbing nutrients
What is the allantochorion?
The allantois and chorion membranes fuse together and attach to the uterine lining
When does implantation occur?
When the allantochorion attaches to the uterus
What is the placenta?
The exchange organ between the mother and embryo that allows for the exchange of nutrients and waste.
What is a diffuse placenta?
The entire surface of the allantochorion attaches to the uterus (ex. sow, mare)
What is the Cotyledonary placenta?
Attachment of the allantochorion takes place in specialized areas (ex. ewe, goat, cow)
What two components make up the placentome?
The cotyledon(allantochorion) and the caruncle (uterine wall)
What is gestation?
Time period from conception, until parturition
What is relaxin?
From ovary helps relax cartilage and ligaments in pelvis
What is oxytocin?
From posterior pituitary gland and causes uterine contractions
What does Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH) do in the male mammal?
Stimulates spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules
What does the Luteinizing hormone (LH) do in the mammalian male?
stimulates testosterone produced by interstitial tissue
What does GnRH do in the mammalian male?
tells anterior pituitary gland to release FSH and LH
What does FSH do in the mammalian female?
Stimulates development of graafian follicles and estrogen period
What does LH do in the mammalian female?
triggers ovulation and stimulates the growth and development of the corpus luteum
What does estrogen do in the mammalian female?
causes sexual excitability
What does progesterone do in the mammalian female?
maintains pregnancy
What happens during proestrus?
follicles developing on the ovary; estrogen is increasing
What happens during estrus?
receptive to the male; high estrogen levels; surge of LH
What happens during metestrus?
Corpus Luteum (CL) is forming and begins to produce progesterone
What happens during diestrus?
Functioning corpus luteum producing lots of progesterone
What does cortisol do?
Signals the beginning of parturition