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178 Cards in this Set

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What is a disinfectant?
Kills bacteria and is applied to facilities.
What is an antiseptic?
Prevents infection and is applied topically to animals
What are the monitoring sources and identification of livestock?
Purchase animals from others with effective herd health management programs, control exposure of animals to other people and vehicles, provide clothing, boots, and disinfectant to people who must be exposed to the animals and facilities.
What is a biologic?
Used to prevent disease.
What is a pharmaceutical used for?
Used to treat disease.
What does immunity mean?
The state of assistance to a disease-causing organism.
What is active immunity?
Acquired by production of antibiotics by natural exposure/recovery or by administering vaccines.
What is passive immunity?
Acquired by introduction of antibodies through genetic selection, natural means (mother/offspring) or by drinking colostrum.
What are the three methods of administration for biologics and pharmaceuticals?
Topically, orally, and by injection.
What are the there ways to administer injections?
Subcutaneous, intramuscular, intramammary
What is an anthelmentic?
A drug that is given to kill internal parasites.
What are the visual observations of detectin sick animals?
Loss of appetite, animal is depressed, ears droop, hump in back, head in lower position, separation from herd, coughing, wheezing, or difficulty breathing.
What are the vital signs?
Body temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate
What are zoonoses?
Diseases that can be passed between animals and humans.
What compromises a major portion of plants and animals?
Water
What are the functions of water?
Solvent, nutrient/waste transportation, thermoregulation, and is a medium for chemical reactions
What are the effects of excessive loss of water?
10% is disruption of body functions, and 20% is death.
What are the functions of carbohydrates in plants?
Primary structural component of plant cells, and energy storage.
What is the function of carbohydrates in animals?
Major source of energy.
What are two pentoses?
Ribose, and Xylose
What are three hexoses?
Glucose, Galactose, and Fructose
What two sugars make up Cellobiose?
Glucose, Glucose
What two sugars make up Lactose?
Glucose, Galactose
What two sugars make up Maltose?
Glucose, Glucose
What two sugars make up Sucrose?
Glucose, Fructose
Which starch has a linear component?
Amylose
Which starch has a branched component?
Amylopectin
What is Hemicellulose?
A mixture of pentoses and hexoses, and is less digestible than starch, but more digestible than cellulose
What is Cellulose?
Linear chains bound together, are the constituent of plant cell walls, and are not digested by most animals
What is Lignin?
Not a carbohydrate, Cellulose is replaced by Lignin as plant matures, is not digestible (only by fungus), and is found in overly mature, poor quality feeds
What are the uses of protein?
Build and repair body tissue, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and protection
How many amino acids are there?
25+
What is an essential amino acid?
One that can not be synthesized by an organism at a rate equal to its physiological needs
What is a limiting amino acid?
An essential amino acid present in a diet in an amount less than required by the animal
What are the 10 essential amino acids in the white rat?
Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Methionine, Arginine, Tryptophan, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, and Lysine
What are the effects of protein deficiency?
Lower birth/growth rates, reduced production, and lower fertility
What are the effects of protein excess?
May lower fertility, enlarged kidneys, and expensive
What is non-protein nitrogen?
Nitrogen in a feed that is not incorporated into protein molecules
Why is non-protein nitrogen useful in ruminants?
It can combine with carbohydrate source to make protein
Why is non-protein nitrogen not useful in monogastrics?
It maybe toxic
What is urea?
A commercial nitrogen source that contains about 40-45% nitrogen
What are lipids?
Organic compunds that are soluble in chloroform, and insoluble in water
What are the functions of lipids?
Energy source, absorb vitamins A,D,E,and K, cushion/protect organs, reduce dustiness in rations, and provide marbeling in meat
What are minerals?
Inorganic elements of the earth
What are the Major(Macro) minerals?
Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, S, Cl
What are the Trace(Micro) minerals?
Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, I, Mo
What are the functions of minerals?
They are co-factors, structural components, electrolyte balance, and parts of organic compounds
What are the effects of Ca deficiencies?
Rickets, and metabolic bone disease
What are the effects of Fe deficiencies?
young sizes - anemia
What is the effect of I deficiencies?
Goiter
What is the effect of Cu excess?
Liver problems
What is the effect of F excess?
Soft teeth and bones
What are vitamins?
Organic compounds, dissimilar in structure but required in extremely small amounts for proper functioning
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, and K
What are the water soluble vitamins?
B complex, and C
What are the sources of Vitamin A?
Green forages and liver
What is the source of Vitamin D?
Exposure to sunlight
What is the source of Vitamin E?
Whole grains
What are the sources of B complex vitamins?
Green forages, animal products/byproducts, and milk products
What is energy?
Capacity to do work, is property of nutrients
What are carbohydrates used for?
Energy
What are lipids used for?
Energy, and structure
What are proteins used for?
Structure, energy, and regulation
What are minerals used for?
Structure and regulation
What are vitamins used for?
Regulation
What is water used for?
Structure and regulation
What is the function of Vitamin A?
Maintaining vision, essential for maintenance of epithelial linings, and cellular metabolism
What is the function of Vitamin D?
Calcium/phosphorous absorption and metabolism
What is the function of Vitamin E?
Antioxidant, reproductive functions in some species, and helps with absorption of selenium
What is the function of Vitamin K?
Blood clotting
What is the functions of Ca?
Bone/tooth formation, and muscle contraction
What are the functions of P?
Bone/tooth formation, enzyme component,and part of DNA and RNA
What are the functions of Mg?
Enzyme activator, and component of skeletal tissue
What are the functions of Na?
Muscle contractions, maintenance of body fluid levels, and an electrolyte
What are the functions of K?
Electrolyte, maintenance of electrolytebalance, and an enzyme activator
What are the functions of Cl?
An electrolyte, acid-base balance, maintanence of osmotic pressure, and component of HCl
What is the function of S?
Synthesis of amino acids in ruminants
What is the function of Fe?
Component of hemoglobin
What are the four functions of the mouth of a monogastric?
Prehension, ensalivation, mastication, and bolus formation
What are the functions of the monogastric stomach?
Store material, secrete substances, mixing, and move chyme from stomach to rest of digestive system
What are the four regions of the monogastric stomach?
Esophageal, Cardiac, Fundic, and the Pyloric
What does the Cardiac section of the monogastric stomach secrete?
Mucous
What does the Fundic section of the monogastric stomach secrete?
HCl
What are the other secretions in the Gastric fluid besides mucous and HCl?
Lipase, Rennin, and Pepsinogen
What is Gastrin?
A hormone produced by the pyloric region of the stomach
What is the function and target organ of Gastrin?
Targets stomach to produce more secretions
What is the Cephalic phase?
A nerve impluse - prepares stomach for incoming food
What is the Gastric phase?
A nerve impulse and hormonal response - food is in stomach
What is the Intestinal phase?
A hormonal response
What are the requirements for emptying the stomach?
Fluidity and acidity of components in stomach, receptivity of duodenum, and the pyloric pump
What is the pyloric pump?
Contractions of stomach become more violent and pushes food through pyloric sphincter.
What is the Enterogastris Reflex?
A nerve reflex - reduces pumping action of stomach
What is Enterogastrone?
A hormonal response produced by small intestine - slows gastric juice production and flow rate
What are the functions of the small intestine in the monogastric?
Chemical degradation, and absorption
What are the three sections of the small intestine?
Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum
Where is pancreatic fluid produced?
Pancreas
What does pancreatic fluid contain?
Enzymes, carbonates, and bicarbonates
What is Secretin and where is it produced?
Produced in duodenum, secretes more pancreatic fluid, carbonates, and bicarbonates
What is Pancreozymin, and where is it produced?
Produced in duodenum, increases enzyme output by pancreas
Where is hepatic fluid produced?
Liver
What does hepatic fluid contain?
Waste products of liver metabolism
What are the functions of bile?
Emulsifying agent, neutralize acids, and aid in absorption
What is Cholecystokinin (CCK)?
Controls the release of hepatic fluid from gall bladder, released by duodenum
What are the functions of the large intestine in the monogastric?
Stores residues left from the digestion process, and lubricates residues to exit through the anus, forms feces
What are the three sections of the large intestine?
Cecum, colon, and rectum
What is the definition of absorption?
Movement of materials from digestive tract into bloodstream
Which nutrients are absorbed by diffusion?
Minerals, and some vitamins
Which nutrient is absorbed by osmosis?
Water
Which nutrients are absorbed by active transport?
Amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, and glycerol
What is absorbed by the large intestine?
Water
What do carbohydrates break down into in the pig?
simple sugars
What do lipids break down into in the pig?
fatty acids and glycerol
What do proteins break down into in the pig?
Amino acids
What are the functions of the mouth in a chicken?
Prehension, ensalivation, and bolus formation
What is the crop?
An out pocket of the esophagus
What are the functions of the crop?
Moisten and lubricate, and storage
What is the function of the proventriculus?
Secrete gastric juices and HCl
What are the functions of the ventriculus?
Grind food, mix with gastric fluid, and contains grit
Where does intestinal digestion take place in the chicken?
The jejunum, and the ileum
Where does gastric digestion occur in the chicken?
The duodenum
What are the digestive fluids in a chicken?
Bile, Pancreatic Fluid, and Intestinal Fluid
What does the colon do in the chicken?
Absorbs water
What three systems are the cloaca and vent passageways for?
Digestive system, urinary system, and reproductive system
What kind of fermenters are horses and rabbits?
Post-Gastric Fermenters
What is the significance of the large ceca in horses?
Microbial fermentation of cellulose/hemicellulose
What does the large intestine absorb in the horse?
Volatile fatty acids (VFA's)
What organ does the horse not contain?
Gall bladder
What is coprophagy in a rabbit?
The eating of fecal pellets
What kind of fermenters are ruminants?
Pre-Gastric Fermenters
What are the functions of the mouth of the ruminant during eating?
Prehension, masticate, ensalivation, and bolus formation
What are the functions of the mouth of the ruminant during rumination?
Regurgitate, remasticate, reensalivation, reswallow
What is the function of the rumen?
Absorption of VFA's
What is the function of the reticulum?
Traps large substances to regurgitate
What is hardware disease?
When wire, nails, etc. are trapped in the reticulum and irritate the lining
What is the function of the omasum?
Absorption of water and particle size reduction
What is the function of the abosmasum?
HCl and other gastric fluids are secreted
What are the functions of the Esophageal Groove?
Directs milk directly to abomasum, and closure is stimulated by suckling action of calf/lamb/etc.
What is symbiosis?
Living in close union with mutual benefit for all
What do simple sugars, starch, hemicellulose, and cellulose break down into in the ruminant?
VFA's
What are the three VFA's in ruminants?
Acetic Acid, Propionic Acid, and Butyric Acid
What do microorganisms break proteins down into in the ruminant?
Organic acids and Ammonia
What do microorganisms break Organic Acids and Ammonia down into in the ruminant?
Microbial Amino Acids and Microbial Proteins
What is hydrolysis?
The breakdown of triglycerides
What is microbial synthesis of vitamins?
Microbes synthesize all water soluble vitamins, especially B vitamins, and also synthesize vitamin K
What gases are produced by microorganisms?
Nitrogen, Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide, and Methane
What chemicals need to leave the animals body?
Carbon Dioxide and Methane
What is Eructation?
Getting rid of gas
What is bloat?
Gas builds up, froth covers esophageal opening
What materials flow from the reticulo-rumen into the omasum and abomasum?
Microorganisms, fermentation products, and feed residues
What does peristalsis do?
Moves materials in the small intestine
What do segmental and pendular movements do?
Mixes
What kind of movement is defecation?
Voluntary movement
What does the rumen absorb?
Large amounts of VFA's
What does the omasum absorb?
VFA's and water
What does the small intestine absorb in the ruminant?
Amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, glycerol, vitamins, minerals, and a small amount of water
What does the large intestine absorb in the ruminant?
Water
What do protected lipids and proteins do?
Bypass rumen, and are digested in the small intestine
What treatments are used to reduce solubility?
Heating, flaking, "kibbles", pellets, etc.
What nutrients are stored in the bones/teeth?
Ca, P, and other minerals
What kinds of nutrients are stored in the liver?
Fat soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, carbohydrates (glycogen)
What kinds of nutrients are stored in the body tissue?
Muscle cells store carbohydrates, vitamins and other things for muscle contraction, and bone marrow stores iron and other nutrients for manufacture of red blood cells
What feedstuffs are used for energy?
Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
What feedstuffs are used for building blocks?
Proteins, minerals and water
What feedstuffs are used as co-factors and co-enzymes?
vitamins, and minerals
What is catabolism?
Breakdown of products (usually releasing energy)
What is anabolism?
Building more complex substances from simple precursors (requires energy)
What does the suffix -genesis mean?
To form
What does the suffix -lysis mean?
to break down
What does the suffix -neogenesis mean?
New formation
What does acid detergent fiber contain?
Cellulose and Lignin
What does neutral detergent fiber contain?
Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Lignin
What is digestibility?
The ability of a nutrient to be digested and absorbed by the animal rather than be eliminated in the feces
What is the equation for Apparent Digestion Coefficient
(Weight of Nutrient Consumed - Weight of Nutrient Excreted in Feces)/Weight of Nutrient Consumed
What are the factors influencing digestibility?
Fiber content,and rates of passage
What is the equation for digestible energy?
DE = GE - FE
What is the equation for Metabolizable Energy?
ME = GE - FE - UE - GPDE
What is the equation for Net Energy?
NE = GE - FE - UE - GPDE - HI
What are the factors influencing energy requirements?
Species, age, activity level, production levels, temperature, nutritional deficiencies, and surface area of animal