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47 Cards in this Set

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Battle of Oinophyta
Battle between Athens and the Boeotians (Thebes) in 457, during the First Peloponnesian War. Athenians were victorious. Their victory enabled the construction of the long walls and domination over Boeotia until 447.
Peace of Kallias
Treaty signed between the Delian League and Persia in roughly 449 that ended the Persian Wars. The Ionian Greeks won autonomy and Persian ships were prohibited from the Aegean, while Athens agreed to not interfere with Persian possessions across the empire.
Amphipolis
Colony in the northern Aegean attacked by Sparta during the early part of the Peloponnesian War. The Peace of Nikias required the Spartans to return this city to the Athenians, but Amphipolis did not want to return -- a major obstacle to the peace.
Thirty Years Peace
Peace treaty signed between Athens and Sparta in 446, ending the conflicts that made up the First Peloponnesian War. It legitimized both the Delian and Peloponnesian Leagues and set up an arbitration process for settling conflicts. The peace only lasted until the beginning of the Peloponnesian War in 431.
Athenian Plague
Plague that broke out in Athens in 430, the second year of the Peloponnesian War. Most of the citizens of Attica had been pulled behind the city walls, so the disease spread rapidly and in a devastating fashion throughout the populace. Many soldiers and leaders, including Pericles, died.
Plataea
In 431, the Athenian-allied city was invaded by Theban forces. The Plaeteans were able to capture the invaders, whom they then killed. This was the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. The city was eventually razed in 427 by the Spartans, with all the prisoners executed.
Archidamian War and Peace of Nikias
The first phase of the Peloponnesian War, ran from roughly 431 to 421. Named for Archidamos, the king of Sparta during this time, though Brasidas replaced him after his death. Athenians led by Pericles, then Kleon and Demosthenes. The Spartans ravaged farmland in Attica while the Athenians would conduct coastal raids on the Peleponnese. This phase of the war concluded with the deaths of Brasidas and Kleon, followed by the Peace of Nikias established between Nikias of Athens and Agis of Sparta. This peace was ultimately unsuccessful due to the desire of allied city-states (such as Corinth) to continue the fighting.
Sicilian Expedition
Expedition of the Athenians to Sicily during the Peloponnesian War, 415-413. Alcibiades was charged with blasphemy, so the reluctant Nikias led the assault instead. The Syracusans, behind the Spartan general Gylippus and Spartiate reinforcements, were able to eventually rout the Athenians. The massive defeat (200 ships and over 10,000 men were lost) dealt a crippling blow to Athens.
Oligarchic Coup of 411
A revolutionary coup that replaced Athenian democracy with an oligarchy of 400. This was done in the hope of attaining Persian support. The navy continued to fight, against the wishes of the new government, which eventually destabilized the coup and replaced it with a government of 5,000. Demonstrated the strength of Athenian democracy (in how short-lived the oligarchy was).
Battle of Arginusai
Battle between Spartan and Athenian navies in 406, won by the Athenians. The Athenians rejected a Spartan attempt to sue for peace following this battle, leading to the rise of Lysandros as the leader of the Spartan navies and the ultimate defeat of Athens.
Battle of Aigospotamai
Battle between Spartan and Athenian navies in 405 in the Hellespont. Spartans, led by Lysandros, were able to capture the entire Athenian fleet. A crippling defeat that led to the surrender of Athens in the next year, 404.
The Thirty
A pro-Spartan oligarchy established in Athens following the Peloponnesian War in 404. Their reign, which overreached and eliminated the rights of many Athenians, only lasted one year until democracy was restored. Led by Critias.
Corinthian War
War between the Spartans and everyone else (Athenians, Persians, Thebans) between 395-386. The Corinthians were able to trap the Spartans in the Peloponnese when war basically bogged down. The Spartans brought an end to the conflict by gaining Persian support and capturing a supply fleet.
King’s Peace
Also known as the “Grand Peace,” this peace ended the Corinthian War. It was established by the Persian king Artaxerxes in 386. Asian Greece was placed under Persian control, and the principle of “autonomy” was granted to all Greek cities.
Second Athenian Confederation
Alliance between the Thebans, Athenians, and assorted other cities established in 378. The Spartans were decreed the enemy of peace and autonomy in Greece. Tensions in the alliance broke out fairly quickly. Though the goal was to eliminate Sparta, the confederation continued after Sparta’s defeat at Leuktra in 371.
Theban Hegemony
Thebes became the hegemon of Greece for a brief period following the breakup of the Peloponnesian League in 369. They established a city for the Messenians as well as Megalopolis in the Peloponnese to diminish Spartan power. Battles were fought between Athens and Thebes. The death of Epaminondas in 362 represented the end of Theban power.
Battle of Leuctra
371 battle between Spartans and Thebans. Epaminondas of Thebes came up with an innovative strategy, creating a much deeper phalanx against the Spartiates. This was the first hoplite battle lost by the Spartans in over 200 years, and the massive defeat broke Spartan power.
Battle of Mantinea
Battle between the Thebans and Spartans to determine dominance for Greece in 362. The Spartans were defeated, but the death of Epaminondas severely weakened Thebes. This dual defeat set the stage for the rise of Macedonian power in Greece.
Macedonia
The northern-most part of the Greek world, traditionally on the periphery of Greek politics. Under the leadership of Philip II and his son Alexander, Macedonia became the undisputed leader of the Greek world (and much of the Mediterranean and Asia), until the ascendancy in turn of Rome.
Illyria
A non-Greek Balkan region that would periodically obfuscate Macedonian affairs, limiting Macedonia’s influence in Greek politics. Philip pushed them back during the early years of his reign, a necessity for Macedonian expansion.
Thrace
Non-Greek region in the southeastern Balkans that made trouble for Philip. Philip bribed the leader of this region in order to buy time to develop his kingdom. He later campaigned and conquered much of this area and founded Philippi.
Pella
The capital of Macedonia and seat of Philip and Alexander, the former of whom took it over from Olynthos. Also the site of Philip’s school for the sons of his aristocrats.
Olynthos
City near Macedonia, head of the Chalkidian League. By Philip’s time it had gained control of much of the surrounding territory, including Pella. During the Social War, it allied with Athens, but Philip besieged and destroyed the city in 348.
Peace of Philocrates
Peace treaty concluded between the Macedonians and Athenians in 346. Ended the Third Sacred War. Philip’s maneuvering (securing the pass at Thermopylae) allowed him to dictate the terms. Peace held until 338, when it collapsed and the Macedonians began warring with the Thebans and Athenians.
Battle of Chaironeis
Battle between the Macedonians, led by Philip, and the Thebans/Athenians in 338. Philip and Alexander won a brutally decisive victory. As a result, Macedonia was able to force a settlement on the remainder of Greece, and the League of Corinth was established with Philip as the leader of all Greece.
Third Sacred War
Fought from 356-346 over the Delphic oracle, between the Thebans and her allies and the Phocians and her allies (including Athens and Sparta). Philip of Macedon used this war as a distraction to increase his power in northern Greece, becoming the ruler of Thessaly.
Battle of Granicus
First of three major battles between Alexander the Great and Persians. Fought near the site of Troy (Granicus River) in 334. Alexander defeated the Persian satraps to take control of the Greek cities of Asia Minor, and Antigonos was left in charge of this area.
Battle of Issus
Second of three major battles between Alexander the Great and Persians, fought in 333. Persians personally led by Darius III. Alexander forced the Persians to flee, and his victory was a decisive moment in the end of Persian power.
Battle of Gaugamela
Final of three major battles between Alexander the Great and Persians, fought in 331. The Persians, again led by Darius III, are completely crushed. Following the battle, Darius flees to the east, attempting to raise another army, but he was murdered by one of his satraps. The remaining satraps gave their loyalty to Alexander, ending the Persian empire.
Lamian War
An Athenian uprising against Macedonia that occurred following the death of Alexander the Great in 323. The allies besieged Lamia, but Antipater was able to resist the siege and defeat the rebellion in 322.
Alexandria
Egyptian city founded by Alexander in 331. Became the center of Greek culture due to the decision of the Ptolemaic kings to found the Mouseion (sanctuary of the Muses) there. It was a museum/research center/library/cultural institute. This enabled the first scholarship to take place.
Chremonidean War
267-261 war between Antigonid Macedon and an alliance of Athens and Sparta, backed by Ptolemaic Egypt. The allied forces were unable to dislodge the Macedonians from Corinth, and Antigonos II Gonotos was able to defeat the Spartans and Athenians individually.
Battle of Kyroupedion
Battle between Macedon (Lysimachus) and Seleukids (Seleukid) in 281. Seleukid victory grants them nominal control over Macedonia, though this did not last particularly long.
Rhodes
Greek island incorporated into Alexander’s empire following the defeat of the Persians in 332. The island became closely connect with the Egyptian Ptolemies, and as such played an important role controlling trade throughout the Mediterranean. Colossus of Rhodes built there following a failed Antigonid attack.
Battle of Kynoskephalai
Battle between the Romans and Macedonians in 197. T. Quinctius Flaminius, Roman general, defeats the army of Philip V. Romans establish a lenient peace, where the Greek cities are autonomous under the umbrella of the Romans.
Battle of Pydna
Battle between the Romans and Macedonians in 168. L. Aemilius Paullus is able to destroy the army of Perseus. This effectively ended the power of Macedonia, as the Romans arrested huge numbers of Macedonians and shipped them to Italy, as well as broke up Macedonia into smaller republics.
Pergamon
A client kingdom of Rome in Asia Minor. Following the defeat of the Seleukid dynasty by the Romans, the Romans gave control of Asia Minor to client kingdoms, of which Pergamon (an ally of Rome against Macedon) was one.
Kimon
Athenian statesman in mid 5th century BCE, Delian League. Son of Miltiades, the victorious general at Marathon. But Kimon himself was a skilled politician and commander and became a leader on his own right. Kimon led the destruction of Persian fleet at Eurymedon River. After Sparta suffered from an earthquake and helot revolt in the mid-5th century, Kimon tried to cement his alliance with Sparta by sending troops. However, Sparta turned down the Athenian troops and humiliated Kimon and Athens. This was political death for Kimon and it also solidified Sparta as a new enemy.
Nicias
older, more experienced; rivalry with Alcibiades; Sicilian expedition; Thucydides; Athens; Peloponnesian War; Peace of Nikias
Alkibiades
younger, more flashy; rivalry with Alcibiades; encouraged Sicilian expedition; Athens; Peloponnesian War; Socrates/Symposium; after ostracized from Athens, fled to Sparta and encouraged Sparta to ally with Persia
Demosthenes
Athenian general during Peloponnesian War; allied with Kleon to lead after Pericles' death; directed raids on Peloponnesian coast; helped orchestrate the virtually unprecedented surrender of 200 Spartiates at Sphakteria
Tissaphernes
Persian satrap who played an important role in leading Persia’s attempt to reconquer Ionian Greek cities. Alcibiades convinces him to get Persians to prolong Peloponnesian War between Sparta and Athens in order to weaken Greeks and make Persians more powerful.
Agis
Spartan king during the late 5th century BCE, and commanded Spartan troops against Athens during the Peloponnesian War. Alkibiades slept with his wife and therefore had to run away from Sparta to Persia.
Brasidas
Spartan leader during the second phase of the Peloponnesian War. Took over from Archidamos. Brasidas thought that the weakness of the Athenians lay in their alliance system so he got Athenian allies in the Northern Aegean area to join forces with Spartans- this caused tremendous difficulty for the Athenians. Oversaw Sparta’s liberation of Amphipolis from Athens. His death was one of the factors that led to the Peace of Nikias.
Lysander
Military leader who won the final victory for Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. Closed the grain route through the Hellespont and starved the Athenian troops into surrender. After the war, failed to help his erstwhile ally Cyrus fend off a coup by his brother Artaxerxes, so Sparta’s relationship with Persia again reverted to hostility.
Konon
Athenian general who commanded Persian troops to destroy Spartan fleet off of Cnidus in 394 BCE. The Persians had approached Konon asking him to help them take on the Spartans, and Konon agreed because he was deeply anti-Spartan. After defeating the Spartan fleet, Konon returned to Athens where he used Persian money to rebuild Athens’ city walls. Part of the Corinthian Wars which took place in the early 4th century BCE in which Sparta was attacked by a coalition of Greek states and Persians.
Xenophon
Politician who wrote treatises on various subjects, most famously the Oikonomika, which detailed regulations for governing one’s household and wife. Also a mercenary soldier for Persia under first Cyrus and Agesilaos, to great acclaim. Early fourth century.