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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Purpose of the vertebral column
central longitudinal axis,
supports trunk
protect spinal cord
Number of bones in the vertebral column
usually 33
Vertebrae are separated by
fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs united by joints and ligaments
The design of the vertebral column allows
flexibilty and strength
Surface Anatomy
Median furrow
middle of back over tips of spinous process
Surface Anatomy
Cervical region is covered with
ligamentum nuchae, thickened supraspinous ligament (makes most not palpable in this region)
Surface Anatomy
How to identify C7
When the neck is flexed (can be confused with T1 which is more prominent)
Surface Anatomy
Number of vertebrae per region
Cervical = 7
Thoracic = 12
Lumbar = 5
Sacral = 3
Coccyx = 3-5
Surface Anatomy
Where is T1/T2 located
superior angle of the scapula
Surface Anatomy
Where is T7/T8 located
inferior angle of the scapula
Surface Anatomy
Where is L3/L4 located
highest point of the illac crest
Surface Anatomy
posterior superior illac spine lies
in a dimple at level of the second sacral spine
Generalized plan of vertebrae
(anterior) Body
weight bearing connect adjacent vertebral bodies by interverterbral discs
Generalized plan of vertebrae
(posterior) vertebral (neural) arch
protects spinal cord, non weight bearing
Generalized plan of vertebrae
Vertebral foramen
located bet.(post) of the body and neural arch. Each forms the verterbal canal
Generalized plan of vertebrae
Verterbal arch formed by
2 pedicles, 2 laminae arised from 2 superior articular process, 2 inferior articular process, 2 transverse process, 1 spinous process.
Generalized plan of vertebrae
Location of superior & inferior articular process
at junctions of the pedicles and laminae
Generalized plan of vertebrae
location of spinous process
posterior midline, directed posterior/inferior from junction of the laminae
Generalized plan of vertebrae
location of transverse process
each side of the junction of the laminae and pedicles
Generalized plan of vertebrae
Where do muscles & ligaments attach?
transverse and spinous process
Generalized plan of vertebrae
Where are intervertebral formaina bound
superior and inferior notches of adjacent pedicles and interevertaral discs
Generalized plan of vertebrae
spinal nerves and vessels transmit through
each foramen
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Cervical: Atlas
ring-like, thin anterior, posterior arches, 2 lateral masses, no body or spinous process
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Cervical: Atlas C1
large horizontal, superior articular process in lateral masses articulae with condyles of the occipital bone
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Cervical: Axis C2
superior directed odontoid process (dens) forms a pivot upon which the atlas rotates
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Cervical: 3-6
delicate bodies bifid spinous process, formaina in transverse process, enlarged triangular vertebral foramen
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Cervical: C7
most superior vertebral spine palpable. (articular process in cervical are usally horizontal)
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Thoracic:
size increase inferiorly, foramen round, facets on each side of for articulation w/ heads ribs
Tranvsverse process articulate w/ tubercule of rib
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Thoracic:
spinous process overlap, articular process oriented in the frontal plane in the superior portion, inferior more sagittial
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Lumbar:
massive bodies, short pedicles, long transverse, short hatchet shaped spinous process, formane triangular, sup/inf articular process are oriented in the sagittal plane
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Sacral
5 vertebrae fused form sacrum
anterior surface: concave, medial sep. by 4 formamina transmit ventral rami of spinal nerves
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Sacral
posterior, medial sacral crest by fused spinous process, lateral, 4 posterior sacral foramina that transmit dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Sacral
laminae of the 5 or 4 meet to form sacral hiatus (place of inferior spinal cord where epidural anest given)
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
coccyx
3-5 rudimentary vertebrae, caudal vert column
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Curvatures (Primary)
Formed before birth; thoracic and sacral
concave anteriorly
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Curvatures (Secondary)
(postnatally)
cervical & lumbar
(develop w/ lifting head, walking)
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Curvatures: Changes
kyphosis: thoracic curve
lordosis: lumbar
scoliosis: complex bending/torsion of column
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Intervertebral discs (outer + deep)
20% of length of column
outer= anulus fibrosus (arranged wrapping of dense fibrous tissue
Deep = nucleus pulpous
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Intervertebral discs (lateral)
semigelatinous, placed so ant. anulus is thicker than posterior, (act as shock absorbers)
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Intervertebral discs (nucleus)
70-80% water allows for compression/bending
discs dehydrate w/ stand/walk
rehydrate w/ rest
Extrusion of nucleus = herniation (press on nerve root = pain of loss of motor)
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Ligaments (anterior longitudinal)
connect vert on all sides
strong flat, attach anterior vert bodies, ext atlas to sacrum. prevents hyperext, acts to splint column w/ fx of ant body.
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Ligaments (posterior longitudinal)
post aspect of vert body, w/in vert canal ext atlas -sacrum. w/ hyperflex holds post margin of vert
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Ligaments transvers lig of atlas
holds dens of C2 against ant arch of C1
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Ligaments ligamentum flavum
joins contigous borders of adjacent laminae, yellowish d/t yellow elsastic tissue
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Ligaments Interspinous
connect deeper aspect of adjacent spines superfically, supraspious lig connects tips of spinous, thickened spuraspinous (cervical) = ligamentum nuchae
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
Movements
discs & articular process of vert allow move of column
-move bet vert is small, total is column move is large
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
types of movement
flexion, extension, lateral, bending and rotation
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
types of movement Cervical
most are permitted by horizontal articular process & thick discs
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
types of movement Cervical
atlantoaxial joint
rotation allows movement of no
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
types of movement Cervical
atlanto-occipital joint
cheif move of yes, allows flexion, extension
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
types of movement thoracic
limited d/t frontal orientation of articular process, thin discs, overlap spinous, attach of ribs/sternum
Regional Chacteristics of vertebrae
types of movement lumbar
thick discs, sagittal orient of articular allow wide range of move flex/ext, some lateral bend, little rotation
Muscles of the back
Superficial
innerv. by ventral primary rami of spinal nerve, cutaneous from dorsal rami pass through muscle to innev skin.
Muscles of the back
Superficial (all insert on upper limb) 1st layer
latissumus dorsi and trapezius
Muscles of the back
Superficial (all insert on upper limb) 2nd layer
levator scapulae, rhomboid major and minor
Muscles of the back
interemediate
function in resp. serratus posterior sup. & serratus post. inf.
innev. by ventral primary rami and segementally vascularized.
Muscles of the back
deep
innev by dorsal primary rami
extend vert column, regulate flexion of joints, contract unilaterally, lateral bend and rotation occur
Muscles of the back
Deep: splenius
muscle wrapped around deep in neck orgin: ligamentum nuchae, T1-T6, insert to transverse of C1 - C4 (splenius cervicis) & sup nuchal line, mastoid process (splenius capitis)
Muscles of the back
Deep: Erector spinae
gross movement of spine, extends from pelvis to skull,
lower thoracic = iliocostalis, longissmus, spinalis
Muscles of the back
Deep: Transversopinalis
oblique grp deep to erector spinae, fibers pass superiormedially from transverse process to spines, action: stabilize spine
Muscles of the back
Deep: Semispinalis (capitis)
most superficial of grp, fibers span 5 segments
Muscles of the back
Deep: multifidus
deep tp semispinalis, fibers spans 3 segments
Muscles of the back
Deep: rotatores
deep to multifidus, fibers span 1 segment best developed in throacic
Muscles of the back
Deep: other
interspinales and intertransversarii, small, minor of deep grp.
Rupture of transverse ligament causes
dens to drive into spinal cord, fx dens cause disolocation of 2nd on 1st transect cord.
CSF can be taken from
L3-L4 or L4-L5 in the subarachnoid space, no risk of injury d/t only cauda equina occupy this region. Infants use suboccipital triangle d/t long cord.