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57 Cards in this Set

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2 components define the long axis of the body.
- notochord
- vertebral column
long rod of fibrous connective tissue surrounding a fluid core (most ancient of the 2 structures).
notochord
consists of discrete, repeating sires of cartilaginous or bony elements
vertebral column
4 components of axial skeleton
skull
vertebral column
ribs
sternum
Originally, the dorsal and ventral arches rested on the notochord which included the:
neural arch
hemal arch
dorsal arch that protects the nerve cord
neural arch
ventral arch that protects the blood vessels
hemal arch
intercalary arches between adjacent vertebrae segments
interneural arch
interhemal arch
the interneural and interhemal arches are also known as
intercalary arches
There are 2 centra (bodies) of the vertebrae
intercentrum
pleurocentrum
(hypocentrum)- the intercalary portion of the centrum
intercentrum
bulk of the central body
pleurocentrum
4 Regions of the vertebral column
cervical
thoracic
lumbar
sacral
neck region
crevical vertebrae
chest region
thoracic vertebrae
between chest and hips
lumbar vertebrae
the hip region and posterior
sacral vertebrae
The terminology to describe the relationship between centra and arches
aspidospondyly
holospondyly
all elements are seperate
(example)
aspidospondyly
(eg., rhachitomous vertebra)
all elements fused together into a single unit
(example)
holospondyly
(eg., lepospondylous vertebrae)
The junction between vertebrae dictate the _ and _ that can occur without damaging the nerve cord
amount , type of movement
centra with 2 flat ends
acoelous
amphicoelous
example
each surface is concave
dolphin
procoelous
example
concave anteriorly, convex posteriorly.
frog
opisthocoelous
example
concave posteriorly, convex anteriorly.
lizzard
heterocoelous
example
saddle shaped surfaces at both ends
bird
5 Different types of vertebral junctions:
acoelous
amphicoelous
procoelous
opisthocoelous
heterocoelous
An _ is a pad of fibrocartilage with a gel-like core
intervertebral disk
Sites on the vertebrae which form articular surfaces for arches and ribs are called
apophyses
3 apophyses
diapophyses
parapophyses
zygapophyses
process on the neural arch
diapophyses
ventral process on the intercentrum
parapophyses
interlocking processes between successive vertebrae and prevent twisting
zygapophyses
Two types of zygapophyses
prezygapophysis
postzygapophysis
anterior interlocking portion
prezygapophysis
posterior interlocking portion
postzygapophysis
3 functions of ribs:
- provide sites for muscle attachment
- form a protective case (rib cage) around the viscera
- serve as accessory breathing devices
4 types of ribs:
Bicipital
True Ribs
False Ribs
Floating Ribs
found in primitive tetrapods, ribs had 2 articular heads
Bicipital
meet ventrally with the sternum
True Ribs
fuse with one another, but not the sternum
False Ribs
articulate with no ventral structure
Floating Ribs
2 types of bicipital ribs
capitulum
tuberculum
2 types of true ribs
costal rib
sternal rib
ventral rib head attaches to parapophysis
capitulum
dorsal rib head
tuberculum
proximal segment that articulates with the vertebrae
costal rib
distal segment articulates with the sternum
sternal rib
The vertebrae develop from the _ (somite derived) mesenchyme
scleratome
These cells first migrate ventromedially and form _ around the notochord
perichordal rings
Collectively, the perichordal rings together form the _
perichordal tube
Regions of the perichordal tube now grow dorsally and cover the neural tube, forming the future _
neural arches
A single vertebra is composed of opposing halves of adjacent scleratomes. Thus, these 2 neighboring halves, once joined together are called _ and comprise the future vertebra
secondary scleratomes
3 parts of sternum
sternebrae
manubrium
xiphisternum
chain of ossified elements
sternebrae
first of the series
manubrium
last in the series (_ cartilage)
xiphisternum (xiphoid)