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139 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 9 abdominopelvic regions
Right hypochondriac, right lumbar, right iliac, epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric, left hypochondriac, left lumbar, left iliac
What chemical is in nerve impulse transmission
Na and K
What chemical is in Muscle function
Ca
what chemical is in red blood cell formation
Fe
What chemical is in blood clotting
Ca
What chemicical is in the protein in the muscle
S
what chemical is in thyroid hormones
I
What is an acid
Proton doner
What is a base/alkaline
Proton acceptor
what is the body pH
7.4
What is a buffer
Resists changes in pH
What are the 3 buffers in the body
Urinary system, respiratory system, chemical system
what are carbohydrates
Sugars and Starches and contains oxygen
What is a monosacharide, give an example
single sugar ex. Glucose, fructose, galactose, deoxyribose, ribose
What is a disacharide, give an example
2 sugars ex. sucrose, maltose, lactose
What are polysaccharides
large and insoluable ex. glycogen and starch
What is glycogen
storage carbohydrate for animal tissue
What is starch
storage carbohydrate for plant tissue
What are lipids, give example
contain phosphorous ex neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids
What do triglycerides consist of
1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids
What type of bond does a saturated triglyceride have
single
What type of bond does an unsaturated triglyceride have
double
What is the difference between a phospholipid and a triglyceride
one fatty acid chain is replaced by a phosphorous containing group
What does amphipathic mean
polor head groupl, non-polar tail
Cholesterol comes from what animal products
Eggs, meat, cheese
What are polysaccharides
large and insoluable ex. glycogen and starch
What is glycogen
storage carbohydrate for animal tissue
What is starch
storage carbohydrate for plant tissue
What are lipids, give example
contain phosphorous ex neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids
What do triglycerides consist of
1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids
What is the most important Eicosanoid
Prostaglandins
What does aspirin do to prostaglandins
makes them stop coming to the site of injury (shrink swelling)
What does the protein collagen do
gives strength to bones, tendons, and ligaments
what does the protein keratin do
protein in hair and nails
What does the protein actin and myosin do
movement of muscle
What does the protein hemoglobin and lipoproteins do
transport
what does the protein hormones and insulin do
metabolism
what does the protein antibodies do
immunity
what does the protein plama (albumin) do
buffers
how many amino acid types are there
20
what are amino acids held together by
peptide bonds
what are 2 amino acids
dipeptide
what are 3 amino acids
tripeptide
what are 10 or more amino acids
polypeptide
what are more than 50 amino acids
protein
What is the primary structure of proteins
order of amino acids
what is the secondary structure of proteins
twisting and bending into either alpha helix or beta pleaded sheet
what is the tertiary structure of proteins
folding
what is the quaternary structure of proteins
two or more chains aggregate
how large is a nucleic acid
largest in the body
what base in DNA is not in RNA
Thymine
what base in RNA is not in DNA
uracile
DNA is single or double stranded structure
double
RNA is single or double stranded structure
single
What is osmosis
diffusion of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane
What is osmolarity
total concentration of all solute particles in solution
What is diffusion
tendency of molecules to move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
what is the brownian motion
moving and colliding of random molecules
what is hyposmotic
one solution has less solute on one side of membrane
what is hyperosmotic
one solution has more solute on one side of membrane
what is osmotic pressure
tendency of osmosis to flow and is measured by the amount of back pressure (cork in tube)
what is tonicity
refers to the response of cells to a solution
what is isotonic
solutes inside cell = concentration of solutes outside
what is hypotonic
concentration of solutes outside cell are less than concentration of solutes inside cell (swelling)
what is hypertonic
concentration of solutes outside cell is greater than concentration of solutes inside cell (shrinkage)
How many types of cells are there
200
glycolipids
polar sugar, nonpolar fatty acid tail
cholesterol
flat, makes membrane more RIGID, less fluid
Integral proteins
amphipathic, form channels, transport
Peripheral proteins
attach loosely to integral proteins or lipids, glycoproteins
Microvilli
fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane increase surface area for absorption ex. kidney cells
3 types of cell junctions
tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
tight junctions
proteins of adjacent plasma membranes fuse them together; forms impermeable seal
desmosomes
anchoring junctions held together by linker proteins
gap junctions
donut arrangement of transmembrane proteins, hollow center allows ions and molecules to pass through
simple diffusion
nonpolar diffuse through the membrane
polar diffuse through protein channels
facilitated diffusion
no energy required, carrier engulfs molecule and releases it to other side
osmosis
water passes freely through lipid bilayer and down concentration gradient
filtration
some molecules and h2o are pushed through membrane by hydrostatic pressure
active transport
requires energy, moves molecules against concentration gradient
Primary active transport
uses membrane pump fueled by ATP NA/K pump
Secondary active transport
molecules hitch a ride with the molecules pumped across membrane by primary active transport ex. glucose catches a ride with Na ions
vesicular transport
requires energy, used for large particles and macromolecules
exocytosis
substances moving from the inside of cell to outside
endocytosis
substances moving from outside of cell to inside
phagocytosis
cell eating; lysosomes
pinocytosis
cell drinking; method of absorbing nutrients
cytoplasm
region between plasma membrane and nucleus composed of cytosol, organelles, molecules, pigments, where 90% of cell activity occurs
cytoplasmic organelles
specialized cellular organs each performing its own job
mitochondria
power plants make ATP found more in cells requiring more energy have DNA from mother
Ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
covered in ribosomes
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
tubule network; lipid metabolism, cholesterol production, steroid hormone production, detox of drugs and pesticides
Lysosomes
bags of enzymes that digest many different molecules
peroxisomes
contains powerful oxidases and catalases
Golgi apparatus
traffic director of cellular proteins, packages proteins and ships them away
Nucleus
control center of cell contains DNA
group of cells similar in structure and function
tissue
epithelial
covering
connective
support
muscle
movement
nervous
control
has all 4 types of tissues
organ
cover the body surface and line body cavities
epithelial cells
function: protection
skin
function: absorption
digestive tract
function: filtration
kidney
function: excretion
kidney
function: secretion
glands
function: sensation
skin
cells are bonded together by what?
tight junctions and desmosomes
what layer is an adhesive sheet of glycoproteins secreted by epithelial cells
basal lamina
what layer has collagen fibers and is part of the underlying CT
reticular lamina
what layers does the basal membrane consist of
basal lamina and reticular lamina
avascular
no direct blood supply
innervated
have a nerve supply
regenerative
can replace itself
simple
one layer
stratified
multiple layers
polyhedral squamous, cuboidal, columnar
flat, square, tall
simple squamous
thin and permeable

kidney, lungs
endothelium
inner covering; what capillaries are made of
mesothelium
holds organs together, holds nerves and blood vessels in place
simple cuboidal epithelium
secretion and absorption

kidney TUBULES
simple columnar epithelium
secretion and absorption

GI tract
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
secretion

ducts and trachea
stratified squamous epithelia
protection from abrasion

lining esophagus, mouth, vagina
stratified columnar
protection and secretion

rare- male urethra
transitional epithelia

locations
ureters, bladder, part of urethra
glandular epithelia
endocrine glands

exocrine glands
endocrine glands
produce hormones, ductless
exocrine glands
secrete products onto skin or into body cavities
unicellular
goblet cell
multicellular
structurally more complex
simple ducts
single unbranched duct
compound ducts
branched duct
tubular
secretory cells form tubes
alveolar
secretory cells form alveoli
tubuloalveolar
secretory cells form tubes and sacs