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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two components of skin and what type of tissue are they composed of?
Epidermis - Epithelial
Dermis and hypdermis - Connective tissue component
What are the (4) major functions of skin?
What are the metabolic functions of skin?
Synthesis of Vitamin D precursor

Stores fat for fatties
What are the three layers of the skin?
What are the two components of epidermis?
Stratified Squamous

Basement Membrane
What type of tissue is dermis and what is contained in this layer?
connective tissue

vascular network
sensory nerve endings
immune cells
fibroblasts for wound healing
What type of tissue is hypodermis and what is contained in this layer?
Loose connective tissue

Extensive adipose deposits
aka: superficial fascia
What are the (4) glands and/or derivatives of skin that are important?
Hair - epidermal derivatives that provide warmth and sensory function

Sebaceous glands- secrete an oily substance (sebum) that protects and lubricates the skin.

Sweat glands - thermoregulation (eccrine) and other unknown functions (appocrine)

Nails - epidermal derivatives on the fingers and toes
What are the major cell types of the epidermis?
What are the 5 layers of cells in epidermis?
Stratum basale or basal layer

Stratum spinosum or spinous (prickle cell) layer

Stratum granulosum or granular layer

Stratum lucidum or lucid layer

Stratum corneum or cornified layer
What does 'desquamates' mean?
To shed the top layer of skin off
How long does it take for complete turn over of epidermis?
2-4 weeks
Where in the epidermis are the dividing cells located?
basal layer
How are cells in the spinous layer attached to each other?
via desmosomes
What cell is in the granular layer, and what does this cell secrete?
keratinocytes that synthesize both cytokeratins and keratohyaline granules
What do keratohyaline granules contain and what do they do?
Keratohyaline granules contain filaggrins that assist in the dense packing of the cytokeratin proteins.
What is the lucid layer?
Lucid layer is only present in thick skin

No longer has nucleus
What are the cells on the most apical layer of epidermis called?
What is the most outer layer of skin called and what are the characteristics?
The outermost layer of skin is the stratum corneum

lost their nuclei and become flattened shells called squames
Keratinocytes contain a cytoskeletal structure composed of ______________.
Cytokeratins (intermediate filaments)
Describe the structure of cytokeratins:
Cytokeratins are rod-shaped, largely alpha-helical proteins that assemble into heterodimers containing one Type 1 and one Type 2 keratin.
What are the main types of cytokeratins in epithelial tissue?
basal keratinocytes and other epithelial cell types - K5 and K14

In the more differentiated keratinocytes in the skin - replaced by K10 and K1
What are the (3) non-keratinocytes in the epidermis?
Langerhans cells
Merkel cells
Describe the location and function of melanocytes:
Located in basal layer

Responsible for pigmentation of hair and skin

Pigmentation absorbs UV to protect from harmful rays
What embryonic tissue are melanocytes derived from?
Neural Crest
Where is melanin located after it is manufactured?
After manufacture, the melanin is transferred to adjacent keratinocytes where they surround the nucleus to shield the DNA
What are they differing colors of skin due to?
Color of skin due to the differing size and number of melain granuales

NOT due to differing numbers of melanocytes
Where are langerhan cells located and what do they do?
Located in all layers of the epidermis

Specialized immune cells and may present antigens to active T lymphocytes
What are merkel cells?
Thought to play role in cutaneous sensation

Found in basal layer of epidermis

Innervated by long myelinated nerves
Where in the skin are most nerve endings found?
Most are found within dermis and hypodermis
What is the largest sensory organ in the body?
What are evaginations of epidermis into the dermis called?
Epidermal ridges
As the epidermis evaginates into the dermis, the dermis has projections into the epidermis. What are they called?
Dermal papillae
What are the three major cells types of the dermis?
Mast cells
What are anastomosing networks?
Networks that connect arteries and veins

Two distint layers
Describe the superficial anastomosis?
Within the most superficial region of the dermis, vessels enter the dermal papillae to nourish the above epidermis
Describe the deeper anastomosis:
A deeper layer of blood vessels is found at the border of the dermis and the hypodermis.
Why do the dermal vasculature have arteriovenous shunts?
Important for altering blood flow for thermal regulation


Involved in inflammation
What are the special nerve endings located within the dermis?
Meissner's corpuscles in the dermal papillae

Pacinian corpuscles that are surrounded by onionlike layers of fibroblasts

Ruffini's endings, spindle-shaped receptors

Unmyelinated fibers that surround hair follicles
Where are meissner's corpuscles located?
Within dermal papillae
Describe pacinian corpuscles?
Surrouned onionlike layers of fibroblasts
Describe Riffini's endings:
Spindle-shaped receptors