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47 Cards in this Set

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What are the (3) major cell types in blood?
erythrocytes
leokocytes
thrombocytes
Where/what are all blood cells derived from?
Bone marrow via hematopoiesis (haemopoiesis)
What is serum?
Blood minus fibrinogen
What is the ratio of components of blood?
***Components of blood
Does a erythrocyte have a nucleus?
No, no nucleus in erythrocyte
Why is a blood cell biconcave?
Allows for a larger surface area
What is the average erythrocytes per mL of blood?
5mil/mL
What is the hematocrit and what values are average?
Clinically, the estimated packed volume of red cells per unit of blood is called the hematorcrit

Men: ~40-50%
Women: 35-45%
What class of blood cells are eosinophils?
Leukocytes
Eosinophils represent what percent of circulating leukocytes?
1-6%
What are the principle functions of eosinophils?
Their principal functions include defense against parsitic infections. Eosinophils are also increased in some allergic disorders.

Eosinophils are phagocytic cells, like neurtophils, but they have a particular affinity for antigen-antibody complexes.
Histologically, how can eosinophils be described?
Histologically, these cells are characterized by specific granules that stain intensely red with the dye eosin. In addition, most eosinophils have a bilobed nucleus.
Basophils represent what percent of circulating leukocytes?
Least common

<1%
Characterize basophils:
They are characterized by the presence of dense, basophilic specific granules. The specific granules of basophils contain sulfated proteoglycans, heparin, histamine and other inflammatory mediators. Basophils and mast cells are derived from a common bone marrow precursor and their functions are similar, i.e. immunological defense. The release of histamine and other vasoactive substances in response to allergens and IgE is responsible for the "immediate hypersensitivy (anaphylactoid) reaction".
Which leukocyte is the largest?
Monocyte
What percent of the blood leokocytes is circulating monocytes?
2-10%
What is the function of monocytes?
Monocytes have little or no function while circulataing in the blood, but they are the precursors of tissue macrophages and osteoclasts.
Histologically, how would you describe monocytes?
Monocytes are characterized by a large eccentrically-placed nucleus, which often has a clearly visible indentation. Monocytes have "primary" granules, which are really lysosomes, but there are no specific granules in the cytoplasm. Thus, monocytes are classified as agranulocytes.
What is the percent composition of leukocytes in blood cells?
25-50%
Histologically, how would you describe lymphocytes?
characterized by a very small cytoplasm-nucleus ratio
What are neutrophils also called?
polymorphonuclear leukocytes
(PMNL)
What percent composition do neutrophils make up leukocytes?
40-75%
How can neutrophils be easily identified histologically?
Neutrophils are easy identified via their multi lobe nucleus
How do neutrophils work?
They are attracted by the presence of organisms(chemotaxis), particularly bacteria, and by C5a fraction of complement. Because of this, they provide the initial response to infection. Neutrophils are phagocytic cells, and their primary function is to kill ingested bacteria. Both primary and specific granules are essentially lysosomes. Specific granules contain proteolytic enzymes and primary granules are distinguised by the presence of peroxidases.
Within neutrophils, specific granules contain __________ & primary granules contain ______________.
Specific - Proteolytic Enzymes
Primary - peroxidases

Both are essentially lysosomes
What do platelets not contain?
A nucleus

Lacks many other organelles as well
What is the major component of plasma?
Water (~90%)
What is the lifespan of:
RBC
Platelets
Granulocytes
RBC - 120 Days
Platelets - 10 days
Granulocytes - <1 day
How long does the monocyte circulate in blood before migrating to the tissues and differentiating?
Within 1-3 days
What is the term that describes the process of making RBCs?
hematopoiesis
What is the term that describes the process of making neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils?
Granulopoiesis
What is the term that describes the process of making monocytes/macrophages?
Monocytopoiesis
What is the term that describes the process of making platelets?
Thromboposiesis
Where is the location of hematopoiesis in adults?
Bone marrow
Before birth, where is the location for hematopoiesis?
Initially in the yolk sac,

later in the fetal liver
The current thought is that all blood cells originate from _______________________.
Pluripotent stem cell
After making the original step of differentiating from the pluripotent stem cell, what is the next step for T lymphocytes?
The lymphoid precursors of T cells migrate to the thymus, where they proliferate and differentiate into mature T lymphocytes.
After making the original step of differentiating from the pluripotent stem cell, what is the next step for RBC?
Proerythroblasts are early cells committed to erythroid development. They are large cells with basophilic cytoplasm (many ribosomes) and pale euchromatic chromatin, and are very similar to blast cells of other lineages. As differentiation progresses, globin synthesis begins on free ribosomes and the chromatin in the nucleus starts to condense. After cell division ceases, the cell continues to accumulate hemoglobin and the nucleus becomes pyknotic (densely heterochromatic). The last stages of erythroid development are characterized by the loss of the nucleus and nearly all of the cell's organelles. The enucleated, nearly mature red cell is called a reticulocyte. It only differs from a mature red cell because it still contains some ribosomes and mitochondria, and hemoglobin is still being formed at this stage.
After making the original step of differentiating from the pluripotent stem cell, what is the next step for basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils?
B cells mature in the bone marrow and then migrate to secondary lymphatic tissues (lymph nodes etc.) where they carry out their functions.
After making the original step of differentiating from the pluripotent stem cell, what is the next step for B cells?
B cells mature in the bone marrow and then migrate to secondary lymphatic tissues (lymph nodes etc.) where they carry out their functions.
What is an immature RBC called?
reticulocyte
Does a reticulocyte have a nucleus?
No

Called reticulocytes due to the network of rRNA present
What is the difference between a reticulocyte and a eurythrocyte?
A reticulocyte still has:

ribosomes
mitochondria
hemoglobin
What are colony stimulating factors?
growth and other differentiation factors that increase the number of blood cells formed from progenitor cells. CSFs can stimulate the division of stem cells, their differentiation into blood cells, or both
What is the basis of thrombopoiesis?
Platelets (thrombocytes) are generated in the bone marrow by fragmentation of the cytoplasm of mature megakaryocytes (large, multinucleated cells within the bone marrow). The platelets then escape into the general circulation.
What are the two components of bone marrow?
Sinusoidal blood vessels

hematopoietic cords
What is within the hematopoietic cords?
The hematopoietic cords also contain reticular cells(fibroblast-like cells and macrophage) with extended cytoplasmic processes. These stromal cells provide support for the hematopoietic cells, secrete the extracellular matrix to which the hematopoietic cells are attached, and produce growth and differentiation factors. When the new blood cells have fully differentiated, they detach from the stromal matrix, squeeze through spaces between the endothelial cells and enter the circulation