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141 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How does the integumentary system provide cutaneous sensation?
receptors in the skin perceive changes
Where are sebaceous found?
all over the body except the palms and soles of the feet
Which cells produce keratin, which gives structure and protection?
Keratinocytes
What is the function of sebaceous glands?
secrete sebum (oil)- secreted into hair follicle or to pore of skin
What substances penetrate the integumentary system?
- lipid solubles (O2, CO2, Vitamins A,D, E, K)
- plant oils, poison ivy
- acetone, paint thinner
- salts of heavy metals- lead, mercury
What is the over activity of oil glands in infants, causing "oily" flakes on the scalp?
Seborrhea
How does the integumentary system regulate temperature?
- sweating
- dissapating heat
What is another name for sebaceous glands?
oil glands
Biologically, which cells provide protection (in the form of a barrier, directly)?
langerhans cells
Acidic secretions by the integumentary system does what?
kills bacteria
What is the function of melanin?
UV protection
What is the function of apocrine sweat glands?
unknown
Epidermis is replaced every __ - __ days.
35 - 45
Which modified sweat gland secretes earwax?
ceruminous glands
Why is the integumentary system a physical barrier?
continuity/hardness of keratinized cells; most substances can't get thru
Which modified sweat gland secretes milk?
mammary glands
The growth of keratinocytes is controlled by a hormone called what?
epidermal growth factor
What softens and lubricates skin and hair?
sebaceous glands
Which cell type produces melanin?
Melanocyte
What appendage of the skin slows water loss?
sebaceous glands
What is the most predominant cell type that makes up the epidermis?
Keratinocytes
What gland is bacteriocidal (kills bacteria)?
sebaceous glands
How does the integumentary system perform metabolic functions?
makes vitamin d which helps with the absorption of calcium
What is the inflammation of the sebaceous glands caused by bacterial infections resulting in the blockage of ducts?
acne
What are the two functions of the integumetory system?
- barrier to the environment
- holds in water
What prevents the breakage of hair?
sebaceous glands
How does the integumentary system provide a blood resevoir?
holds about 5% of entire blood volume
What skin cancer usually occurs as lesions in areas frequently exposed to the sun?
basal cell carcinoma
major skin area where derivatives (hair, nails) reside
dermis
Which epidermal layer is the deepest?
Stratum basale
common result of inflammation, allergy and fever
erythema
Which type of cell is associated with sensory nerve endings?
merkel cells
vascular region
dermis
What is the most common type of skin cancer?
basal cell carcinoma
layer of translucent cells, absent in thin skin
s. lucidum
Which degree burn is when there is epidermal damage- sunburn?
1st
stratum germinativum
s. basale
Which epidermal layer has cells that contain thick bundles of tension filaments made of prekaratin?
Stratum spinosum
strata with mostly dead cells
corneum, lucidum
Which pigment provides a natural sunscreen?
melanin
general site for melanin formation
epidermis
What type of skin cancer is the most dangerous but only accounts for 5%?
malignant melanoma
Less numerous variety of perspiration glands?
apocrine
Which type of cell has branched parts that touch all keratinocytes in the basal layer?
Melanocytes
mostly adipose tissue that anchors the skin to underlying tissues
hypodermis
A blush cast of the skin results from inadaquate oxygenation of the blood
cyanosis
Functionally these are merocrine glands
sweat glands (apocrine and eccrine)
Which degree burn is when there is thickness of the skin damaged?
3rd degree
epidermal layer where most melanocytes reside
basale
Which type of cell arises from bone marrow?
Langerhans cells
Glands that become more active at puberty under the influence of androgens
sebaceous glands, apocrine glands
What leads to renal shutdown and circulatory shock?
burns
accounts for the bulk of the epidermis
corneum
Which degree burn is when the epidermis is damaged- like blistering?
2nd degree
which gland has a product that is an oily mixture of lipids, cholesterol and cell fragments?
sebaceous
Which pigment is mostly found in the stratum corneum?
carotene
What kind of barrier is the langerhans cells/macrophages?
biological
clotted mass of blood that may signify bleeder's disease
hematoma
Ducts are open to the external environment- pore?
sweat glands
Which cell type is found in the deepest layer of pigment?
Melanocyte
What kind of barrier is the intact epidermis?
mechanical (phys)
Which type of cell is for touch perception (stimulates the neuron since it isn't in the epidermis)?
merkel cells
What is the dermal layer that is made up of dense irregular tissue?
reticular layer
In melanocytes, nearby keratinocytes ingest what?
pigments
Where are eccrine sweat glands found?
palms, soles of feet, forehead
What causes catastrophic body fluid loss?
burns
What is the dermal layer that is thin, superficial connective tissue?
papillary layer
How does the integumentary system provide a source for excretion?
small amount of metabolic waste is secreted in sweat
What is the function of nails?
tool-like stuff..
In melanocytes, melanin is transported where?
to the ends of branches and are shed
What is the dermal layer that is just under the epidermis?
Papillary layer
Which pigment is phagocytized by keratinocytes?
melanin
What [hair] structure is associated with a bundle of smooth muscle?
arrector pili
Which cell type is spider-shaped?
Melanocyte
What is the dermal layer that is a nutrient source (many blood vessels)?
papillary layer
Which type of cell migrates and plants themselves somewhere in the epidermal layer?
Langerhans cells
What [hair] structure is embedded in the skin?
root
Where do melanin granules accumulate?
On the "sunny side" of the keratinocytes
Is the epidermis or dermis that houses nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles, and oil/sweat glands?
dermis
What type of skin cancer starts in the stratum spinosum?
squamous cell carncinoma
Hair is made up of what kind of cells?
keratinized
Which type of cells are macrophages?
Langerhans cells
What is the dermal layer that has many collogen fibers for strength and resilience?
reticular layer
What type of skin cancer starts in the stratum basale?
basal cell carcinoma
What [hair] structure projects from the skin?
shaft
What type of skin cancer is found on the scalp, ears, top of hand, lower lip?
squamous cell carcinoma
What are the projections into overlying epidermis that has capillaries and nerve endings?
Dermal papillae (produce finger print)
Which type of cell is found at the epidermal-dermal junction?
merkel cells
What happens when blood is poorly oxygenated, causing a deeper color of red which shows thru the skin as blue?
cyanosis
What type of skin cancer is the cancer of melanocytes?
malignant melanoma
What is the dermal layer that maintains the hydration of the skin?
reticular layer
accumulation of bile pigments in the blood may indicate liver disease
jaundice
What is the purpose of nose hair?
filters particles from the air
Which epidermal layer is made up of a single row of cells undergoing rapid cell division?
Stratum basale
Is the epidermis or dermis made up of dense irregular tissue?
dermis
observation of this condition might lead to tests for anemia, low blood pressure
pallor
Which pigment is caused by RBCs circulating thru the dermal capillaries?
hemoglobin
Which epidermal layer is the bulk of the epidermis, made up of several cell layers?
Stratum spinosum
Which pigment is responsible for the yellow to orange tone of the skin?
carotene
What causes odor in the apocrine sweat glands?
breakdown of molecules by bacteria
Is the epidermis or dermis the same as "hide"?
dermis
Where are apocrince sweat glands found?
armpits, genital areas
Which pigment is responsible for the yellow to reddish brown to black color of the skin?
melanin
What [hair] structure extends from the epidermal surface into the dermis?
follicle
What is the dermal layer that is 80% of the dermis?
reticular layer
What is the function of eccrine sweat glands?
thermoregulation
Which pigment is responsible for the racial differences (the varying amount)?
melanin
In dark skinned people, this is seen in nail beds and mucous membranes.
Cyanosis
Which pigment tends to accumulate in the stratum corneum?
carotene
Which pigment is seen mostly in fair-skinned people?
hemoglobin
Which pigment is responsible for freckles?
melanin
What is the purpose of eyelashes?
shield eyes
What is the dermal layer that has elastic fibers that provides stretch and recoil?
reticular layer
What integumetory organ corresponds to animal hooves or claws?
nails
Which pigment is most obvious in the palms and soles of the feet?
carotene
What are the scale-like modifications of the epidermis?
nails
Which pigment is responsible for the pinkish color of the skin?
hemoglobin
sudoriferous glands are also called what?
sweat glands
Which epidermal layer is for protection and water-proofing?
Stratum corneum
Why do we have hair on our heads? (3)
protection from trauma, heat loss and sunlight
Burn: nerve endings destroyed?
3rd degree
Which glands are coiled, tubular?
eccrine sweat glands
Which epidermal layer possess lamelled granuoles which contains lipids for water-proofing?
sratum granulosoum
Is sweat hypotonic or hypertonic?
hypotonic
Which epidermal layer has parallel tonofilaments and keratinohyaline granules?
stratum lucidum
Is sweat hypotonic or hypertonic?
hypotonic
Which epidermal layer is 3-5 layers of flattened keratinocytes?
stratum granulosum
What [hair] structure is associated with nerve endings?
bulb
Which epidermal layer is for water-proofing?
Stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum
Nails contain hardened - .
keratin
Burn- skin is blanched
3rd degree
What is the function of eccrine sweat glands?
thermoregulation
Which epidermal layer is the outermost layer, 20-30 cell layers thick?
stratum corneum
Which epidermal layer is present only in thick skin?
stratum lucidum
What kind of barrier is the acid mantle?
chemical
Which epidermal layer has a thickened cell membrane?
stratum granulosum
What kind of barrier is keratin?
mechanical (phys)
What kind of barrier is melanin?
Chemical
What kind of barrier is the bacterial secretions?
chemical
Which epidermal layer is made up of a few rows of flattened keratinocytes?
stratum lucidum
Which epidermal layer is dead and shingle-like?
stratum corneum