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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Because of Wolff's law, curved bones are thickest where they are most likely to what?
bend and buckle
What happenes to the hyaline cartilage as a child grows?
hc on inside is digested away
Because of Wolff's law, large bony projections occur where what attach?
heavy active muscles
Broken bones push each other- fracture
impacted
In Wolff's law, neg. charges are what?
deposition
Hyaline cartilage is completely covered with what made by osteoblasts?
bone matrix
In Wolff's law, mechanical forces produce equivalent electrical signals which stimulate what?
growth of bone
What is the first step in repairing a fracture?
hematoma forms
In In Wolff's, elec. fields prevent PTH from what?
stimulating osteoclasts at fracture site
What is hematopoletic tissue?
red marrow
What is wolff's law?
bone grows/remodels in response to the forces/stresses on it
How are fractures treated?
reduction (realignment)
Because of Wolff's law, long bones become thickest where?
midway along the shaft
What kind of tissue contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts?
connective
Electrical signal (Wolff's law) proportional to what?
applied force
For optimal bone deposition we need what?
Ca, Mg, P, Vit: A,C,D
Load or force placed on long bones is usually in the form of what?
bending
What is the embryonic skeleton mostly made up of?
hyaline cartilage
Bones can hollow due to lack of what?
force in the center
When PTH is secreted, what happens?
Ca is removed from the bones
The bone's anat reflects what?
stresses on it
Red marrow in adults is found only where?
Spongy bone
What is the last step in fracture repair?
remodeling; bony callus remodels into a stronger patch; caused by a MECHANICAL stimulus
As blood calcium levels decline, what is secreted?
PTH
In Wolff's law, pos. charges are what?
absorption
Fat tissue is also known as what?
yellow marrow
What is the second step of fracture repair (after hematoma)?
break is splintered by a fibrocartilage callus to close the gap
fragmented fracture
comminuted
Trabeculae of spongy bone act as trusses along lines of what?
compression
What determines where the bone attaches?
proximal/distal location
When the bony callus is formed (fract repair), what migrates to the area?
osteoblasts/clasts
open fracture
compound
Bending in long bones creates what on opposite sides?
tension/compression
What is the "liner" of the medullary cavity?
endosteum
Why is the middle of a bone hollow?
no force; not stimulated to make bone matrix
Closed fracture
simple
Force is minimal in what part of the long bone?
center
At birth, the only cartilage remaining is what kind of cartilage?
articular
What is the third step in fracture repair?
bony callus is formed
What takes over when PTH secretions stop?
osteoblasts
What occurs when yellow marrow in adults converts to red?
anemia
What happens when the bone is coaxed back into place by a physician?
closed reduction?
What is the point between the diaphysis and epiphysis?
Epipyseal line
Why does a hematoma form in repairing a fracture?
blood from ruptured vessels fill swelling
Short, irregular flat bones are like sandwiches made of thin plates of what?
periosteum covered compact bone (outside) and endosteum covered spongy layer (inside, "diploe")
Bone popped inward- fracture
depressed
Where is articular cartilage found?
ends of bones, epiphyseal plate
from twisting- fracture
spiral
What is the reminent of hyaline cartilage where childhood growth occurs?
Epipyseal line
What stimulates osteoclasts?
PTH hormone
What is the "sac" covering the diaphysis?
periosteum
As blood Calcium levels increase, what stops?
PTH secretions
What is the epiphysis made of?
spongy bone
Crushed bone- fracture
Compression
What is the end of a long bone called?
epiphysis
partial break- hyaline cart. - fracture
greenstick
What is the shaft of the bone called?
diaphysis
What happens whne surgery is needed (+pins, wires) to fix a fracture?
open reduction
What kind of marrow is found in adults?
yellow
What kind of fracture can be either simple or compound?
comminuted
Where is the bone marrow located?
medullary cavity
Cells closest to the diaphysis secrete what (lengthening in long bones..)?
calcified matrix
What is the diaphysis made of?
compact bone
How does the long bone lengthen?
cartilage cells divide, pushing plate away from diaphysis
What kind of marrow is found in children?
red
What regulates bone growth?
human growth hormone
Where does the lengthening of long bones occur?
epipyseal plate
The rate of deposition is highest when?
as a child
Where does the widening of long bones occur?
periosteum surrounding the diaphysis
Do depositing/removal of bone occur at the same time?
yes
How does a long bone widen?
osteoblasts form new osteons
Human growth hormone is secreted by what?
the thyroid gland
When are deposition and removal of bone about equal?
as an adult