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117 Cards in this Set

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What determines the (A-B-AB-O) blood types?
The presence or absence of the (A & B) antigens on the RBC's surface
Which antigen(s) does type (A) RBC's contain?
(A) Antigen ONLY
Which antigen(s) does type (B) RBC's contain?
(B) Antigen ONLY
Which antigen(s) does type (A & B) RBC's contain?
(A & B) Antigens
Which antigen(s) does type (O) RBC's contain?
Has no antigens
What determines the (Rh) blood types?
The presence or absence of the (Rh) antigens on the RBC's surface (Antigen - D)
If the Rh antigen is present on the RBC's surface, would that make the blood type positive or negative?
Rh Positive
If the Rh antigen is absent on the RBC surface, would that make the blood type postive or negative?
Rh Negative
Blood Type (A) antibodies?
Anti-B
Blood Type (B) antibodies?
Anti-A
Blood Type (A & B) antibodies?
No Antibodies
Blood Type (O) antibodies?
Both Antibodies
Who can blood type (A) donate to?
Donate to: A & AB
Who can blood type (A) receive from?
Receive from: A & O
Who can blood type (B) donate to?
Donate to: B & AB
Who can blood type (B) receive from?
Receive from: B & O
Who can blood type (AB) donate to?
Donate to: AB ONLY
Who can blood type (AB) receive from?
Receive from: ALL
Who can blood type (O) donate to?
Donate to: ALL
Who can blood type (O) receive from?
Receive from: O ONLY
What is a donor?
A person giving blood
What is a recipient?
A person getting blood
What happens if a donor and recipient blood type are not compatible?
The recipient's plasma antibodies will attack antigens on donated RBC's
Which three deadly results can result in the recipient if the donated blood from the donor isn't compatible?
-Blood Agglutination
-RBC's Hemolysis
-Fatal Circulatory Shock
Hemolytic Disease of the newborn (HDN) results from what?
Rh incompatibility between Rh- mother and her Rh+ baby conceived from an Rh+ father
When Rh+ RBC's of first born child enter mother's circulation, mother will be __________, her plasma will carry anti-Rh antibodies and destroy the Rh+ RBC's of the second baby.
Sensitized
Each impulse produces one ________.
Cycle
Systole
Heart muscles DEPOLARIZATION causes their CONTRACTION
Diastole
Heart muscles REPOLARIZATION causes their RELAXATION
What do the alternating heart muscles systoles and diastoles produce?
The Cardiac Cycle
What occurs during atrial and ventricular diastole?

(step 1)
-AV valves OPEN
-Ventricular fill to 70%
What occurs during atrial systole?

(step 2)
-Completion of ventricular filling

(Atrial Contraction)
What occurs during ventricular systole?

(step 3)
-Ventricules CONTRACT
-AV valves CLOSE - lubb (S1) Sound
-SL valves OPEN 50-60% of blood ejected

(Ventricular ejection)
What occurs during atrial and ventricular diastole?

(step 4)
-Ventricles RELAX - return to diastole
-SL valves CLOSE - dupp (S2) sound
Specific Defense
Immunity
Innate Immunity
GENETICALLY determined at birth
Acquired Immunity
Produced by EXPOSURE TO ANTIGENS or by ANTIBODIES PRODUCTION

(developed throughout life)
Active Acquired Immunity
Develops by INDUCED or NATURAL EXPOSURE to antigens
Passive Acquired Immunity
Develops by INDUCED or NATURAL TRANSFER of antibodies

(happens during pregnancy - passed through mother or medically)
Immunity is provided by the coordinated activity of ____ and ____ lymphocytes in response to the presence of ________ antigens.
T & B; Specific
Cell-Mediated Immunity
T-cells respond to intracellular antigens such as virus infected cells and tumor cells
Antibody-Mediated Immunity
B-cells respond to extracellular antigens such as bacteria
Supressor T Cells
Limit immune system activation by a single stimulus
CD4 Cells (Helper T cells)
-Activated when antigen presented by antigen presenting cell (APC) cell

-Develops into helper T-cells and memory cells

-Helper T-cells must stimulate CD8 cells for them to become fully activated killer T cells
CD8 Cells (Cytotoxic T cells)
-Activated by contact with virus infected body cell
-Develop into killer T-cells and memory T cells
B-cell lymphocytes stay in ________ tissue.
Lymph
Extracellular antigen enters lymph tissue and binds to _______________.
B-cell receptors
What happens when B-cells become activated?
-B-cells divide into plasma cells and memory cells
-Helper T-cells bind to antigen on B-cells and help stimulate plasma cell and memory cell formation
What do plasma cells secrete?
Various types of antibodies
What do antibodies bind to?
The specific antigen that activated its parent B-cells
What do antibodies cause the destruction of?
Antigen
Neutralization
of antigens such as toxins
Agglutination and Precipitation
Removing antigen bearing cells from solution in blood or body fluids
Activation of Complement Proteins
that destroy the antigen by various means
Phagocytosis Activation
(another way that antibodies destroy antigens)
Opsonization
Coating of antigen by antibodies to increase phagocytes attachment to antigen surface
Stimulation of Inflammation
by activation of mast cells and basophils
Prevention of Antigens Adhesion
to cell surfaces
Systolic Pressure (SP)
-Pressure in arteries when left ventricle is contracting
-Higher number on blood pressure reading
Diastolic Pressure (DP)
-Pressure in arteries when left ventricle is relaxing
-Lower number on blood pressure reading
How is BP measured?
In millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
What is used to measure the arterial blood pressure?
Manometer
What area on the body is used to take measurements of arterial blood pressure?
Upper Arm
What is a typical reading of arterial blood pressure?
120 mmHg/80 mm Hg
What number is considered hypertension?
140/90 or above
Pulse Pressure (PP), when is it high?
Difference in systolic and diastolic pressures or PP=SP-DP
-High during exercise, anxiety, influence of certain drugs and with hardening of arteries
Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MABP or MAP)
-Single measure of arterial BP
What is the formula for MAP?
MAP=Diastolic Pressure + (Pulse Pressure/3)
What is Arterial Pressure Gradient, and what does it average?
-Difference in arterial pressure from Aorta to Capillaries
-Averages about 60 mmHg
What is Capillary Pressure Gradient, and what does it average?
-Difference in pressure from Arteriole to Venule side of capillary bed
-Averages about 20 mmHg
What is Venous Pressure Gradient, and what does it average?
-Difference in pressure from Venules to Vena Cavae
-Averages about 16 mmHg
Tidal Volume (Vt)
Volume of air in one breath
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Volume of air inspired in addition to Vt
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Volume of air expired in addition to Vt
Residual Volume (RV)
Volume of air that cannot be expired even with maxium forced expiration
Inspiratory Capacity (IC) formula?
Vt + IRV
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) formula?
ERV + RV
Vital Capacity (VC) formula?
Vt + IRV + ERV
Total Lung Capacity (TLC) formula?
Vt + IRV + ERV + RV
The pancreas is five inches long extending from the _________ to the ________.
Duodenum; Spleen
What are the three parts that the pancreas consist of?
-Head-
-Body
-Tail
Most cells are ________ producing __________ enzymes. (pancreas)
Exocrine; Digestive
Endocrine cells in pancreatic islets produce _________.
Hormones
Acinar Cells
Exocrine cells that secrete digestive enzymes into ducts
Duct Cells
Secrete a bicarbonate solution to buffer the acidic chyme from stomach and raise its pH from 2-3 to 7-8
Proteins Digestion by ________ enzymes.
Proteolytic
Four enzymes secreted as inactive _________. (proteins digestion)
Proenzymes
Where are proenzymes sequentially activated to form active enzymes? (proteins digestion)
In the duodenum
What do active enzymes digest? (proteins digestion)
Proteins & Polypeptides to tipeptides, dipeptides, and single amino acids
Remaing starch is digested in the intestine by ___________ enzyme to disaccharides. (starch digestion)
Pancreatic Amylase
Digestion is the same as in the _______. (starch digestion)
Mouth

STARCH ---->amylase---->Disaccharides
________ digested in the small intestine by _________ enzyme. (fats digestion)
Triglycerides; Pancreatic Lipase
Digestion of each _________ yields a ________ molecule and _________ molecules.
Triglyceride; Monoglyceride; Two Fatty Acid

Triglyceride---->Lipase---->Monoglyceride + Two fatty acids
Decreased body water trigger hypothalamus to release ______ hormone from the _______ pituitary. (urine concentration)
Antidiuretic (ADH)
ADH makes the cells of the DCT and CD ______ permeable to water and increases water reabsorption back into the blood. (urine concentration)
More
Small volume of dark yellow, __________ urine is produced. (urine concentration)
Concentrated
With optimum body water, the hypothalamus stops secreting ________ hormone. (urine dilution)
Antidiuretic (ADH)
DCT and CD become _____ permeable to water and less water is reabsorbed. (urine dilution)
Less
More water stays in the the filtrate resulting in a large volume of light yellow, _______ urine. (urine dilution)
Dilute
The minimum urine volume that must be excreted to get rid of metabolic waste and excess ions is ________ Liters/day.
0.5
The maxium concentration ability of the kidneys is ________ mOsm/Liter
1200-1400
The urinary body is covered by a sheet of smooth muscle called the _________ muscle.
Detrusor
The trigone of the urinary bladder is where the two urteres enter the bladder at the most __________ angles of trigone which open into the neck.
Uppermost
The detrusor muscle fibers form __________ in the neck. (urinary bladder neck)
Internal Urethral Sphincter
In the __________, skeletal muscle fibers form the ____________ that is under conscious control. (urinary bladder neck)
Urogenital Diaphragm; External Urethral Sphincter
FSH from anterior pituitary stimulates _______ growth. (follicular phase)
Follicle
Follicles grown into ________ (mature) follicles. (follicular phase)
Graafian
Granulosa cells of follicle secrete _________ and _________. (follicular phase)
Estrogens and Inhibin
Increasing levels of estrogens and inhibin inhibit ______. (follicular phase)
FSH
Increasing estrogens also stimulates secretion of ______. (follicular phase)
LH
LH stimulate development of __________ from ovulated or ruptured mature follicle. (luteal phase)
Corpus Luteum
Corpus Lutem secretes mostly ________ and some estrogens. (luteal phase)
Progesterone
Progesterone prepares __________ for possible pregnancy. (luteal phase)
Endometrium
Rising estrogen levels from the growing follicle stimulates growth of the _________ layer of endometrium to 4 to 10 mm thickness. (proliferative phase)
Functional
Corpus luteum of ovary secretes _________.
Progesterone

*(secretory phase)
What does progesterone stimulate? (secretory phase)
-Increased thickening of the functional layer of endometrium to 12-18 mm

-Increased blood supply into the endometrium

-Growth of endometrial glands secretion of uterine milk
Menstruation Phase (Menses)
-Decline in progesterone levels causes functional layer of endometrium to be discharged resulting in vaginal bleeding called menstruation.
-Mark the end of one cycle or beginning of the next