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196 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Matter is defined as
Anything that occupies space and has mass
The mass of an object is ____ even at different altitudes.
constant
The mass of an object is equal to the amount of ____ in the object
matter
Energy is defined as
the capability to do work, or to to put matter into motion
The two types of energy are _____ and _____
kinetic and potential
Kinetic energy is energy in ____
action
Potential energy is _____ energy
stored
Chemical energy is the form stored in
bonds of chemical substances
When chemical reactions occur that rearranges the atoms of the chemicals the a certain way, what happens pertaining to energy?
Potential energy is unleashed, and becomes kinetic energy.
Chemical energy in the form of _____ is the most useful form of energy in living systems because it is used to run all functional processes
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
______ energy results from the movement of charged particles.
Electrical
______ energy is energy directly involved in moving matter.
mechanical
______ energy is energy that travels in waves
Radiant or electromagnetic
When matter is heated, the _____ energy of its particles ______
kinetic, move more quickly
All matter is composed of _____
elements
How many elements are known with certainty?
112 elements (with 113, 114, 115, 116 alleged)
How many elements occure in nature?
92
Which four elements make up 96% of body weight?
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen.
______ properties are those we can detect with our senses
physical
______ properties pertain to the way atoms interact with other atoms
chemical
What is the symbol for protons?
p+
What is the symbol for neutrons?
n0
Protons and neutrons have _____ masses
approximately the same
Protons and neutrons mass are measured in what measurement unit?
atomic mass units
Electrons bear a charge ____ to the strength of the positive charge of the protons.
equal
All atoms are electrically _____
neutral
The atomic number of any atom is equal to the number of _____ in its nucleus
protons
The number of protons is always equal to the number of ____ in an atom
electrons
The ______ of an atom is the sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons.
mass number
Hydrogen, has only one proton in its nucleus, so its so its atomic and mass numbers are
1
Helium, with two protons and two neutrons, has a mass number of ______
4
Nearly all known elements have two or more structural variations called ______
isotopes
Isotopes have _______ number of protons and electrons, but have _____ number of neutrons
the same, different
The atomic weight of an element is the ______ of the relative weights of all the isotopes of an element, relative to their abundance in nature.
average
The heavier isotopes of many elements are unstable, and their atoms ______ ______into more stable forms
decompose spontaneously
The spontaneous decomposition of isotopes' atoms into more stable forms (atomic decay) is called ______
radioactivity.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity are called _____
radioisotopes.
The time required for a radioisotope to one half of its radioactivity is called its ______
half life
_____ emission has the lowest penetrating power
Alpha
_____ emission has the greatest penetrating power
Gamma
A combination of one or more atoms held together by chemical bonds is called a _____
molecule
If two or more atoms of the same element combine, the resulting substance is called a ______ of that element.
molecule
When two or more different kinds of atoms bond, they form molecules of a ______
compound
Mixtures are substances composed of two or more components ______ intermixed
physically
The three types of mixtures are called
solutions, colloids, and suspensions
Solutions are ______ mixtures
homogenous
The substance present in the greatest amount is called the ______ and the substance present in smaller amounts are called ______
solvent, solutes
_____ is the body's chief solvent
Water
True solutions are usually
transparent
Solutes of true solutions are/are not visible to the naked eye, and do/do not settle out or scatter light.
not visible to the naked eye, and do not settle out or scatter light
A concentration of a solution can be represented in _______ or _______
percentages or molarity
A mole of any element or compound is equal to its _____ weight or _____ weight weighted out in grams.
atomic, molecular
What is the molecular weight of glucose, i.e 1 M weight?

C6H1206
See page 31

(#atoms X Atomic Wt. =Ttl atomic weight)
C 6 X 12.001 = 72.006
H 12 X 1.008 = 12.096
O 6 X 15.999 = 95.994
1 M of glucose=180.156 grams
Define Avagadro's number
One mole of any substance will have 6.02X10 23rd power molecules of that substance.
Colloids (emulsions) are ____
mixtures that often appear translucent or milky.
heterogenous
Particles in colloids do/do not settle out and do/do not scatter light
do not settle out, do scatter light
A unique property to colloids is the ability of some to undergoe ___ ____ transformation
sol-gel (think Jello)
_____ in cells is considered a sol gel
cytosol
Suspensions are ______ mixtures with large, often visible _____
heterogeneous, solutes
Compounds can only be separated into their constiuent atoms only by _____ means
chemical
To say that a substance is ______, it means that a sample taken from any part of the substance has the exact same composition as any other part
homogeneous
The atoms known so far can have electrons in __ shells
7
Electrons farthest from the nucleus have the ___ potential energy
most
Electrons farthest from the nucleus are the ____ likely to interact chemically with other atoms
most
When the outermost energy level (shell) of an atom is filled to capacity or has 8 electrons, the atom is stable and considered ____
inert (unreactive)
In atoms that have more than 20 electrons, the evergy levels beyond level ___ can contain more than 8 electrons
2
Valence shell is used to indicate an atom's _____ energy level, or that portion of it that are chemically reactive
outermost
Define Octet rule (rule of 8's)
Atoms tend to interact in such a way that they have 8 electrons in their valence shell.
Name the three types of chemical bonds
ionic, covalent, and hydrogen
Define ionic bond
chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other.
Define anion
The atom that gains one or more electrons (the electron acceptor)-acquires a negative charge
Define cation
The atom that loses electrons (the electron donor) acquires a net positive charge.
Most ionic bonds fall in the chemical category called ___
salts
Define covalent bond
Electron sharing that produces molecules in which the shared electrons occupy a single orbital to both atoms
The molecules formed in a covalent bond that are electrically balanced are called _____ molecules
nonpolar
Unequal electron sharing results in
polar molecules
Because water has two poles of a charge, it is a polar molecule, or _____
dipole
Hydrogen bonding is common to ____ such as water
dipoles
Hydrogen bonds are strong/weak bonds
weak
Hydrogen bonds can form ______ bonds, which bond a single large molecule together into a specific three dimensional shape
intramolecular bonds
In a chemical equation, the number and kinds of reacting substances are called _____
reactants
When atoms or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex molecules, the process is a ______ or _____
reaction
synthesis, combination (anabolic)

A + B = AB
A _____ reaction occurs when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms
decomposition (catabolic)
Exchange or ______ reactions involve both synthesis and decomposition
displacement

AB + C -> AC + B and
AB + DC -> AD + CB
Define oxidation-reduction reactions (redox)
Redox reactions are decomposition reactions in that they are the basis for all reactions in which food fuels are catabolized for energy.

decomposition reaction, food is catabolized
In a redox reaction, the reactant losing the electrons is referred to as the electron donor, and is said to be ____
oxidized
In a redox reaction, the reactant taking up the transferred electrons is referred to as the electron acceptor, and is said to become _____
reduced
Reactions that release energy are called _____
exergonic reactions.
With few exceptions, catabolc and oxidative reactions are exergonic
Reactions in which the product contains more energy than the original reactants are called _____
endergonic reactions.
Anabolic reactions are typically endergonic reactions.
Name the 4 factors that influence the rate of chemical reactions.
temperature, concentration, particle size, and catalysts
Chemical reactions are more likely to occur by raising both ____ and _____.
temperature and concentration.
_____ are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves becoming physically changed or part of the product
catalysts.
Biological catalysts are called _____
enzymes.
All chemicals in the body fall into two classes, ___ and _____
organic, inorganic.
All organic compounds are _____ bonded
covalently.
Water makes up between ___ and ___ % of the volumes of most living cells
60-80%
Water is often called the ____ solvent
universal
Water forms _____ layers around large charges molecules such as proteins, sheilding them from the effects of other charged substances in the vicinity and preventing them from settling out of solution
hydration
Cerebrospinal fluid and blood are examples of what type of mixture?
colloids.
Foods are digested to thier building blocks by adding a water molecule to each bond to be broken. Such decomposition reactions are called ______ _____.
hydrolysis reactions ("water splitting")
When large carbohydrate or protein molecules are synthesized from smaller molecules, a water molecule is removed for every bond formed, referred to as ___ __
dehydration synthesis.
A ___ is an ionic compound containting cations other than H and anions other than the hydroxyl ion (OH-)
salt
All ions are _____, subtances that conduct electrical current in solution.
electrolytes.
Groups of ions that bear an overall charge, such as sulfate, are called
polyatomic ions.
Define acid
a substance that releases Hydrogen ions (H+) in detectable amounts
Because acids release a hydrogen ion that is just a hydrogen nucleus, acids are also defined as _____
proton donors.
When acids dissolve in water, they release
hydrogen protons and anions
It is the concentration of which atomic molecule that determines the acidity of a solution?
protons
The molecular formula for an acid is recognized by the __ being written first.
hydrogen (HCl).
Bases are proton
acceptors.
Like acids, hydroxides dissociate in water, but in this case ___ and ___ are liberated
hydroxl (OH-), cations.
Like acids, hydroxides dissociate in water. However, what is liberated instead?
hydroxl ions (OH-) and cations.
The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the more ___ it is
acidic
The greater the concentration of hydroxyl ions the more ____ the solution is
basic (alkaline)
The relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids is measured in ___ units
pH
The pH scale was devised by whom?
Soren Sorenson in 1909
The PH scale runs from 0 to __
14
The ph scale is logarithmic, that is each succesive change of one pH unit represents a tenfold change in ____ ____ concentration.
hydrogen ion
The pH of a solution is defined as the negative logarithm of the Hydrogen ion concentration (H+) in moles per liter or ___
-log[H+]
at a pH of 7 (at which [H+] is 10 -7 power), the number of hydrogen ions ___ ___the number of hydroxyl ions (pH = pOH), and the solution is neutral.
exactly equals
A solution with a pH of 6 has ___ times as many hydrogen ions as a solution with a pH of 7
10
Solutions with a pH higher then 7 are _____
alkaline
Compute the hydrogen ions for a solution with a pH of 7 as composed to a solution with a pH of 12
(1/10 X 1/10 X 1/10 X 1/10 X 1/10)=1/100,000 as many hydrogen ions.
When acids and bases mix, they react with each other in _____ reactions to form ___ and ___
displacement reactions, water and salt
Normally, blood pH falls between what range
7.35-7.45
Undissociated acids do/do not affect the pH of a solution
do not
Name three compounds that contain carbon but are considered inorganic
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbides
Carbon never gains or loses electrons, it only ___ them.
shares
Carbohydrates represent what percentage of cell mass?
1-2%
Hydrogen and oxygen atoms generally occur in what ratio in a carbohydrate?
2:1, same as water
In general, the larger the carbohydrate molecule, the more/less soluble it is in water
less
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen generally appear in what ratio in a carbohydrate?
1:2:1 also written as (CH2O)n
Monosaccharides are also known as ___ sugars
simple
Name two isomers of glucose
galactose, fructose also starch and glycogen.
The decomposition reaction that occurs when disaccharides are broken down into simple sugars is called what?
hydrolysis (reverse of dehydration synthesis)
Chainlike molecules made of many similar units are called _____
polymers
The storage carbohydrate found in plants is called
starch
The storage carbohydrate found in animals is called
glycogen
Triglycerides are also called what?
Neutral Fats
A triglyceride is made up of what two types of building blocks?
fatty acids and glycerols
Describe fat synthesis.
Fat synthesis involves attaching 3 fatty acid chains to a single glycerol molecule by dehydration synthesis

3 fatty acid, 1 glycerol, dehydration synthesis
Fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms are called ____
saturated
Fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms are said to be ________
unsaturated (mono and poly)
Which type of fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated) are said to be more "heart healthy"?
unsaturated
___ ___ are oils that have been solidified by the addition of H atoms at the sites of double carbon bonds.
trans fats
Phospholipids contain _ fatty acid chains
2
Molecules that have both polar and non-polar regions are ________
amphipathic
Steroids are made of _ interlocking hydrocarbon rings
4
The single most important molecule in our steroid chemistry is _____
cholesterol
_____ are diverse lipids chiefly derived from a 20 carbon fatty acid (arachidonic acid) found in all cell membranes
eicosanoids

(prostaglandins)
Protein composes __-__% of cell mass
10-30%
All proteins consist of which 4 elements?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and nitrogen. Many contain sulfur and phosphorus as well
The building blocks of proteins are called ___ ___.
amino acids

(there are 20 common types)
All amino acids have two important functional groups. What are they?
amine group (-NH2)
organic acid group (-COOH)
All amino acids are identical except for a single group of atoms called their _ group.
R
Proteins are long chains of amino acids joined together by a ___ ___ reaction with the amine end of one amino acid linked to the next.
dehydration synthesis
The link between the amine end of a amino acid to the acid end of another amino acid is referred to as a ___ bond
peptide
Two united amino acids form a _____
dipeptide.
Name the four structure types of proteins.
Primary, secondary, tertiary, qauternary
(ascending in complexity)
In regards to protein structures, what are the two different types of secondary structures?
alpha helix (slinky)
beta pleated sheet
This type of protein is extended and strandlike.
fibrous
This type of protein is compact and spherical.
globular a.k.a functional
When a protein loses its shape due to temp. rise or pH drops, it is said to be ___
denatured.
Name 8 examples of fibrous protein
Collagen, Keratin, Elastin, Spectrin, Dystrophine, Titin, Actin, Myosin

anagram-MAST DECK
Name 5 functions of globular proteins
catalysts, transport, regulation of pH, regulation of metabolism, body defense
In globular proteins, __ __ are regions that fit and interact chemically with other molecules of complimentary shape and charge.
Active Sites.
Name three functions of chaperonins.
-Prevent accidental, premature, or incorrect folding of polypeptide chains
-Aid in the desired folding and association process
-Promote breadown of damaged and denatured proteins.
Name the first chaperonins discovered.
heat shock proteins (hsp)
What name replaced "heat shock protein".
stress proteins
____ are globular proteins that act as biological catalysts.
enzymes
Name two two parts of a holoenzyme.
apoenzyme (protein portion),
cofactor (ion or organic molecule)
Most cofactors are derived from ____.
Vitamins (specifically B complex)
A cofactor that is vitamin based is called a ______.
coenzyme
Hydrolases add what during hyrdolysis reactions?
water
Oxidases add what during an oxidation reaction?
oxygen
Define substrate.
The substance that binds to an enzymes active site.
Substances that fit into an enzyme's active site to block the substrate are called ___ ___.
enzyme inhibitors.
Name the three basic steps in the mechanism of enzyme action.
1. Enzyme's site binds with substrate
2. The enzyme substrate complex undergoes internal arrangements that form the product.
3. The enzyme releases the product of the reaction.
Most enzymes can catalyze how many reactions a minute?
millions
Nucleic acids are composed of what elements?
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
Structural units of nucleic acids are called _____
nucleotides
What are the 3 components make up a nucleotide?
a nitrogen containing base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
Name the 5 major varieties of nitrogen containing bases that contribute to nucleotide structure?
adenine-A, guanine-G, cytosine-C, thymine-T, and uracil-U
Name the nucleotide purines (two ring bases).
adenine and guanine
Name the nucleotide pyrimidines (single ring base)
cytosine, thymine, and uracil
The stepwise synthesis of a nucleotide involves attachment of a base to a ___ ___ to form a nucleotide.
pentose sugar
The nucleotide is formed when a ___ ___ is bonded to the sugar of the nucleoside.
phosphate group
RNA is located where in the cell?
chiefly outside the cell membrane.
What is RNA's primary role?
To carry out orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA.
Name the pentose surgar in DNA.
deoxyribose
In RNA, uracil replaces what nitrogen base?
thymine
Name three types of RNA
messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA.
Describe the structure of ATP
ATP is an adenine containing RNA nucleotide with two additional phosphate groups
Define acidosis.
A condition of acidity or low PH (below 7.35) of the blood; high ion concentration
Define alkalosis.
A condition of basicity of high PH (above 7.45) in the blood; low hydrogen ion concentration.
RNA is double/single stranded.
single