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70 Cards in this Set

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Define Histology
study of tissues
List the 4 basic tissue types
1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
Describe Epithelial tissue
lining, covering, secreting, absorbing
Describe Connective tissue
connects tissues physically or chemically
Describe Muscular tissue
causes motion, generates heat
Describe Nervous tissue
connects tissues electrically
Composed almost entirely of cells. Cells adhere to each other.

1. Name word for this
2. Name tissue
1. Cellular/Cellularity
2. Epithelial Tissue
Lacks blood vessels

1. Name word for this
2. Name tissue
1. Avascular
2. Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial tissue includes

1.
2.
1. Glands
2. Epethelium
__________ tissue cells are short-lived.

Dead cells are continually replaced by
Epithelial tissue

germinative cells and stem cells.
________ tissue cells exhibit polarity.

Polarity=
Epithelial tissue

=one end attached, one end open to surface
_________ tissue forms a protective barrier.

This regulates __________.
Epithelial

permeability
Apical surface of Epithelial tissue contains

1.
2.
3.
1. Microvilli
2. Cilia
3. Stereocilia
Basal surface of Epithelial tissue contains

1.
2.
1. Basal lamina
2. Receptors
Functions of Epithelial

1. Physical _________
2. Controls _________
3. Provides _________
4. Produces _________
1. Protection (Membranes – cutaneous, mucous)
2. permeability (Forms walls of capillaries)
3. sensation (touch, vision, taste, smell)
4. specialized secretions (Gastric lining, nasal lining, serous fluid)
Epithelial tissue

Basal lamina attaches to
underlying surface

Lamina lucida
Lamina densa
Epithelial tissues

Cells attach via _________
cell adhesion molecules (CAM)
Epithelial tissues

Cells attach at specialized cell junctions

1.
2.
3.
1. Tight junctions
2. Gap junctions
3. Desosomes
Apical Surface
an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an organ
Basal Surface
lower attached surface
Epithelia are classified based on two characteristics

1.
2.
1. Number of cell layers
2. Shape of apical surface cells
Classification of epithelia

Number of cell layers

1. Simple
2. Pseudostratified
3. Stratified
1. a single layer
2. a single layer so dense that the nuclei give the appearance of multiple cell layers
3. two or more layers
Classification of epithelia

Shape of apical surface cells

1. Squamous
2. Cuboidal
3. Columnar
1. Thin, translucent, rather irregular
2. Large, centrally-located nuclei
3. Nuclei typically found at basal end of cell
Most diverse in extra features
In most epithelia, the basal cells differ in shape from
the apical cells
Simple Squamous Epithelium

1. Least _______
2. Allows for rapid ________
3. Reduces _____ & ________
4. Provides lubrication via _________.
1. protective
2. transport b/w compartments
3. friction and turbulence
4. serous fluid
Stratified Squamous Epithelium

1. Most ________
2. Reduces ________________
3. Outermost cells are _____
4. They are replaced by _____
1. Protective
2. dehydration, abrasion, invasion by pathogens
-epidermis of skin
-linings of mouth, vagina
3. dead
4. reproducing cells of the basal layer
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

1. Regularly shaped cells, as tall as
2. Large, centrally-located
3. Specialized for
4. Specialized for
1. they are wide
2. nuclei
3. secretion
-Thyroid gland follicles
-Ovarian follicles
4. absorption
- Kidney tubules
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

1. Not
2. Found in
1. common
2. sweat glands of skin
Simple Columnar Epithelium

1. widespread through
2. Specialized for
3. Specialized for
1. body
2. secretion or absorption
-Lining of alimentary canal from stomach to rectum
3. motility
-Ciliated cells lining uterine tubes
Stratified Columnar Epithelium

1. Two layers
2. Protective in areas of high
1. Basal cells are cuboidal
Apical cells are columnar
2. volume/pressure fluid transport
3.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

1. a single layer of cells appears to be
2. Cells are
3. Second most
4. May be ciliated and secrete
5. Found in
1. multiple layers
-All cells touch basement
membrane; not all cells reach lumen
2. densely packed
3. protective epithelium
4. mucus
5. -Epididymis and Vas eferens of male
-Nasal cavity and Trachea
Transitional Epithelium

1. tissue transitions from
2. All cells touch
3. so the tissue is
4. It doesn’t stretch – when compressed it can cover more surface area to
5. Found only in
6. Apical cells are
7. When relaxed, it may be confused with
8. When distended, it may be confused with
1. thick to thin under pressure
2. basement membrane
3. pseudostratified
4. accommodate the stretching of underlying tissues
5. Ureter and Urinary bladder
6. are larger, more rounded, or dome-shaped compared with basal cells
7. stratified cuboidal epithelium, but stratified cuboidal has only two layers of distinctly cuboidal cells
8. stratified squamous epithelium,but the apical cells and nuclei are still
larger than the basal cells in transitional
epithelium
Glandular Epithelia

Exocrine glands

1. Secrete through
2. examples
3. multi or uni cellular
1. ducts onto a surface or into a passageway
2. salivary glands, sweat glands, acinar cells of
pancreas
3. multicellular
Glandular Epithelia

Endocrine glands

1. Release hormones into
2. examples
3. uni or multi cellular
1. blood and tissue fluid
2. thyroid gland, pituitary gland, gonads, islet cells of pancreas
3. unicellular
Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion

Name 3

1.
2.
3.
1. Merocrine
2. Apocrine
3. Holocrine
Merocrine

1. Product released through
2. Example
3. Type of secretion
1. exocytosis
2. Eccrine sweat glands, salivary glands
3. Serous
Apocrine

1. involves the loss of
2. Example
3. Type of secretion
1. both product and cytoplasm
2. Mammary glands
3. Mucous
Holocrine

1. destroys
2. Example
3. Type of secretion
1. destroys the cell
2. Sebaceous glands
3. Mixed
Connective Tissue Characteristics

1. Found where?
2. The most diverse tissue category in what 2 things?
3. Widely distributed in ________ tissues.
4. Tissues may be mostly
5. Or formed from nonliving
6. Variably
7. _________ is common tissue of origin
1. throughout the body
2. structure & function.
3. primary
4. cellular
5. extracellular matrix
6. vascular
7. Mesenchyme
Connective tissues nonliving extracellular matrix consists of

1.
2.
3.
1. ground substance
2. fibers
3. cells
Mesenchyme is
embryonic connective tissue that develops mainly from the mesoderm
Functions of Connective Tissue

1. Establishing a
-ex.
2. Transporting
-ex.
3. Protecting
-ex.
4. Supporting
-ex.
5. Storing
-ex.
6. Defending
-ex.
1. structural framework
-Bone, Cartilage
2. fluids and dissolved materials
-Blood
3. delicate organs
-Adipose, Areolar
4. surrounding, interconnecting tissues
-Connective Tissues Proper
5. energy reserves and minerals
-Adipose
6. the body from microorganisms
-Lymph
Connective tissues nonliving extracellular matrix

1. Ground substance is
2. Fibers are
3. Cells are
1. unstructured material that fills the space between cells
2. collagen, elastic, or reticular
3. fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, and hematopoietic stem cells
Connective Tissues Proper functions


1.____ produce the fibers
2.____ engulf pathogens
3.____ fat-storing cells
4.____ stem cells
5.____ pigment producers
6.____ trigger inflammation
7.____ attack foreign antigens
8.____ engulf cell remnants
a viscous ground substance, and a varied cell population

1. Fibroblasts
2. Macrophages
3. Adipocytes
4. Mesenchymal cells
5. Melanocytes
6. Mast cells
7. Lymphocytes
8. Microphages
Connective Tissues Proper

Fibers

3 Types
1.
2.
3.
1. Collagen
2. Reticular
3. Elastic
Connective Tissues Proper
Fibers

1. Collagen
2. Reticular fibers
3. Elastic fibers
1. – flexible, but high tensile strength. white fibers
2. thin, branching fibers form supporting network for cells located in fluid-filled organs (like the spleen or the liver)
3. branched, coiled fibers that return to their original length and shape after stretching. (yellow fibers)
Connective Tissues Proper
Ground Substances Composition

1. ________ fluid
2. Adhesion proteins -
3. Proteoglycans
1. Interstitial (tissue)
2. fibronectin and laminin – serve as “glue” to allow CT cells to attach themselves to matrix elements.
3. glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) - Functions as a molecular sieve through which nutrients diffuse between blood capillaries and cells
Connective Tissues Proper
Cells

1. found connective tissue proper
2. cartilage
3. bone
4. stem cells – blood
5. White blood cells, plasma cells, macrophages, and mast cells
1. fibroblasts
2. Chondroblasts
3. Osteoblasts
4. Hematopoietic
5. Immune system cells
Embryonic Connective Tissue

1. called
2. found in the
3. give rise to
4. ______ ground substance and with _____ & _____ shaped mesenchymal cells
1. Mesenchyme
2. embryo
3. all other connective tissue
4.
Areolar connective tissue proper- loose

1. Gel-like matrix with
2. name 4 types of cells
3. Wraps and cushions
4. Widely distributed
5. Underlies all
6. Well
1. all three connective tissue fibers
2. Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells
3. organs
4. throughout the body
5. Epithelia
6. vascularized
Adipose connective tissue proper- loose

1. Matrix similar to
2. Found
3. Local fat deposits serve
4. Reserves
5. insulates against
6. Produces and stores
1. areolar connective tissue with closely packed adipocytes
2. under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen, and in breasts
3. nutrient needs of highly active organs
4. food stores
5. heat loss, supports, cushions and protects
6. hormones
Reticular connective tissue proper- loose

1. Loose ground substance with
2. Forms a soft
3. Functional cells, called
4. Found in
1. reticular fibers
2. internal skeleton, or stroma, that supports other cell types
3. parenchyma, are supported by the fibers.
4. lymph nodes, bone marrow, and the spleen (organs that contain or filter fluid)
Dense regular connective tissue proper- loose

1. Parallel collagen fibers with
2. Attaches muscles to
3. Found in
4. Major cell type is
5. poorly
1. a few elastic fibers
2. bone or to other muscles, and bone to bone
3. tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses
4. fibroblasts
5. vacularized
Dense Irregular connective tissue proper

1. Irregularly arranged
2. Major cell type is
3. Withstands tension in
4. Found in
1. collagen fibers with some elastic fibers
2. fibroblasts
3. many directions providing structural strength
4. the dermis, submucosa of the digestive tract, and fibrous organ capsules
Elastic connective tissue proper

1. Formed from
2. Found where
3. Allow
1. elastic fibers
2. tissue stretch and recoil are important (Wall of aorta
Underneath transitional epithelium In ligaments between adjacent vertebrae
In ligaments supporting the penis)
3. expansion and contraction of organs
Supportive Connective Tissues

1. Role is to
2. 2 Primary types
3. Typically have more
4. Recognized by presence of
1. Support, protect, and provide attachment for other tissues
2. Cartilage, Bone
3. ground substance and firmer ground substances than CTP
4. of lacunae in body of tissue
Cartilage

1. Primary cells called
2. Cells found in
3. Slow to heal due to
4. Three types
5. separates cartilage from surrounding tissues
1. chondrocytes
2. lacunae
3. poor/absent vascularity
4. hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage
5. Perichondrium
Hyaline Cartilage

1. Found in
2. Supports, reinforces, cushions, and resists
3. Amorphous, firm matrix with
4. Forms the
1. embryonic skeleton, the end of long bones, nose, trachea, larynx, and rib cage
2. compression
3. imperceptible network of collagen fibers
4. costal cartilage
Elastic Cartilage

1. Similar to hyaline cartilage but
2. Maintains shape and structure while
3. Supports
1. with more elastic fibers
2. allowing flexibility
3. external ear (pinna) and the epiglottis
Fibrocartilage

1. Matrix similar to hyaline cartilage but
2. Provides ______ and supports ________.
3. Found in
1. less firm with thick collagen fibers
2. tensile strength. compression shock
3. intervertebral discs, the pubic symphysis, and in menisci of the knee joint
Osseous Tissue (Bone)

1. Hard, calcified matrix
2. Supports, protects, and
provides levers for
3. Stores
4. Marrow inside bones is site of
5. Osteocytes are found in
6. Broken bones heal much faster than
1. with collagen fibers
2. muscular action
3. calcium, other minerals, and fat
4. hematopoiesis
5. lacunae and are well vascularized via canaliculi
6. damaged cartilage
Fluid Connective Tissues

1. Contains a distinctive
2. __________ ground substance.
3. 2 Soluble protein “fibers”
4. Two types
1. cell population
2. water
3. Albumin, Fibrinogen
4. Blood Lymph
Fluid Connective Tissues
Blood

1. Formed
2. ________ blood cells and
3. Fluid component perfuses to
1. elements and plasma
2. red and white. platelets
3. tissue space, then becomes lymph
Fluid Connective Tissues
Lymph

1. Interstitial fluid entering
2. Contains
1. the lymphatic vessels
2. lymphocytes, macrophages, cellular debris, and foreign particles
Muscle Tissue

1. The only tissue capable of generating
2. Cells are called
3. Cytoplasm contains
4. Typically well-vascularized and cells contain numerous
5. Formed from
1. mechanical force
2. fibers due to their long, thread-like shape
3. numerous contractile proteins (Actin and Myosin
)
4. mitochondria for adequate ATP synthesis
5. myoblasts (from embryonic mesoderm)
Skeletal Muscle

1. Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells with
2. Produces
3. May exhibit
4. Found in
1. obvious striations
2. voluntary movement
3. involuntary control (reflexes, breathing)
4. skeletal muscles that attach to bones or skin
Smooth Muscle

1. Sheets of
2. Propels substances along
3. Found in
4. Not capable of
1. spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei that have no striations
2. internal passageways (i.e., peristalsis)
3. the walls of hollow organs
4. voluntary control
Cardiac Muscle

1. Branching, striated, uninucleate cells interlocking at
2. Not capable of
3. Found in
4. Propels blood into
1. intercalated discs
2. voluntary control
3. the walls of the heart and proximal aorta only
4. the circulation
Neural Tissue

1. Branched neurons with long
2. Transmits electrical signals from
3. Found in
1. cellular processes and support cells
2. sensory receptors to effectors
3. brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
Injury Repair
2 Phases

1.
2.
1. Inflammation
2. Repair