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29 Cards in this Set

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the deeper of the two major layers of the skin, composed of dense fibrous connective tissue interspersed w/ glands, nerve endings,& blood vessels

outermost layer of the skin; sometimes called the “false” skin
hair follicle

(hair FOL-li-kul)
small blind-end tube extending from the dermis through the epidermis that contains the hair root & where hair growth occurs; sebaceous & apocrine skin glands have ducts leading into the follicle

skin; the body's largest orga

tough, fibrous protein substance in hair, nails, outer skin cells, and horny tissues

brown pigment primarily in skin and hair
multilayered, protective structure composed of epithelial cells containing hard keratin; located at the distal ends of fingers and toes
sebaceous gland

(seh-BAY-shus gland)
oil-producing glands in the skin
Subcutaneous Leyer
is not part of the skin itself, it carries the major blood vessels and nerves to the skin above
Sweat gland
most numerous of the skin glands.classified into 2 groups—eccrine & apocrine—based on the type of secretion, location, & nervous system connections.
Identify the two main or primary layers of skin
Epidermis—superficial, thinner layer

Dermis—the deep, thicker layer
What tissue type dominates each layer?
mesoderm dermis

The terms thin and thick skin refer to which primary layer of skin? How do thin and thick skin differ?
The epidural layer
Thick skin is hairless, has 5 layers,underlying dermal papillae r raised in curving parallel friction ridges to form fingerprints or footprints that r visible on the overlying epidermis, In thin skin, the number of cell layers in each epidermal stratum is less
Identify the two main cell types found in the epidermis
Keratinocytes—constitute over 90% of cells present; principal structural element of the outer skin Melanocytes—pigment-producing cells (5% of the total); contribute to skin color; filter ultraviolet light.
Langerhans cells—dendritic (branched) antigen-presenting cells (APCs), they play a role in immune response
List the five layers or strata of the epidermis
Stratum basale base layer, Stratum spinosum spiny layer, Stratum granulosum granular layer, Stratum lucidum clear layer, Stratum corneum horny layer
What is the name of the gluelike layer separating the dermis from the epidermis?
dermal-epidermal junction The basement membrane, a complex arrangement of adhesive components that glue the epidermis and dermis together
Which layer of the dermis forms the bumps that produce ridges on the palms and soles?
in thick skin the underlying dermal papillae are raised in curving parallel friction ridges to form fingerprints or footprints that are visible on the overlying epidermis.
Which layer is vascular: the epidermis or dermis?
It is the rich vascular supply of the dermis that plays a critical role in regulation of body temperature
What is the main function of the hypodermis?
it carries the major blood vessels and nerves to the skin above
What is the one means of heat production in the body? In what type of organs does most heat production occur?
Heat is produced by 1 means—metabolism of foods. Because the muscles & glands (especially the liver) r the most active tissues, they carry on mr metabolism & there4 produce mr heat thn any of the other tissues
Name three of the four physical processes by which heat is lost from the body.
approximately 80% of heat loss occurs through the skin; remaining 20% occurs through the mucosa of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tract
Identify the pigment that determines hair color.
varying amounts of melanins
Distinguish between the classes of burns
1st degree burn causes minor discomfort & some reddening of the skin. 2nd involve the deep epidermal layers and always cause injury to the upper layers of the dermis. 3rd characterized by destruction of both the epidermis and dermis. If burning involves underlying muscles, fasciae, or bone, it may be called a 4th degree burn
List 7 functions of the skin
Protection, sensation, flexibilty,excretion, hormone production, immunity, homeostasis of body temp,
How does surface film contribute to the protective function of the skin?
a protective barrier against an array of potentially damaging assaults from the environment
List the appendages of the skin
hair, nails, and skin glands
What are the two types of sweat glands? How do they differ?
Endocrine- most numerous function throughout life Simple, coiled, tubular glands
Secrete perspiration or sweat; eliminate wastes & help maintain a constant core temperature. Apocrine glands
Located deep in subcutaneous layer, Limited distribution—axilla, areola of breast, & around anus. Large (often more than 5 mm in diameter)Simple, branched, tubular glands.Begin 2 function at puberty, Secretion shows cyclic changes in female w/ menstrual cycle
List two functions of sebum.
keeps the hair supple & the skin soft & pliant. protective skin cream that prevents excessive h20 loss from the epidermis. anti fungal effect
What substances make up the skin's surface film?
From epithelial elements—amino acids, sterols, and complex phospholipids
From sebum—fatty acids, triglycerides, and waxes
From sweat—water, ammonia, urea, and lactic and uric acid