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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which is the first homeostatic event to occur following damage to arteriole?
Arteriolar smooth muscle contract in vascular spasm.
Which event occurs after the P wave?
Contraction of atria
Which vein has the largest cross-section area?
A loss in the function of gastric chief cells would result in a decreased ability to digest which substance?
A decreased level of which blood component will decrese the transport of cholesterol to tissue cells?
Which statement accurately describes the pressure in the alveoli during normal quiet respiration?
The alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure during inspiration, but greater than atmospheric pressure during expiration.
What causes expiration during normal quiet respiration?
Passive recoil of the lungs & chest wall.
Which reaction is a form of hydrolysis?
Formation of glucose from glycogen.
What is the function of the SA node?
Set the pace of the heart beat
Which action occurs following the stimulation of the baroreceptors in the aortic arch?
The smooth muscles will relax.
A major function of hepatocytes is the formation and secretion of which substance?
Which results when blood pH decreases?
More oxygen is available to tissues
Which blood group will have its erthrocytes aggultinated be either type A or type B plasma?
Type AB
How does the body respond to higher than normal blood levels of carbon dioxide?
Ventilation is increased to remove excess carbon dioxide.
Which process occurs in a patient with falling glucose levels?
An elevation of which factor will increase the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen?
Which hormone stimulates ejection of bile from gallbladder?
Cholecystokinin CCK
Which phase of gastric activity control is inhibited by the enterogastric reflex?
intestinal phase
Non digestible substances move through the sections of the colon in which order?
Ascending, transverse, desecending, sigmoid
Which stage of the cardiac cycle lasts the longes?
Time that atrioventricular valves are open.
Which is a normal response of the cardio inhibitory center of medulla oblogota.
decreased heart rate and times of increased b/p.
Which characteristic differentiates small arteries from large arteries?
Small arteries have more smooth muscle.
How does the heart react to excessive K+ in the blood
The heart stops
What is the function of surfactant produced bye type II alveolar cells?
Reduces surface tension so the alveoli can more easily expand during inspiration.
What is involved in chemical digestion?
The addition of water molecular bonds.
Which action best reduces peripheral resistance in blood vessels?
increasing the diameter of the arteries.
What is the result of living in and area of high altitude?
increase production of erthrocytes.
Anemia is a disorder of which blood element?
Which is an effect of increase venous return?
Increase end-diastolic volume (EDV)
Which is an example of a catabolic chemical reaction?
Glycogen conversion to glucose
The inferior region of the stomach communicates with the duodenum of the small intestine via which structure?
Pyloric sphincter
How do bile salts facilitate digestion of fat?
By causing emulsifaction
Where in the cardiovascular systen is b/p normally the highest?
Renal Artery
Carbon usually has an atomic mass of 12, but some carbon has a mass of 14. Which term best describes carbon 14?
Aqueous solutions are most easily formed if the solute is in which condition?
Which property of water is most important for the proper function of the human body cells?
Water is a highley effective solvent.
Dehydration of which of the following will form a peptide bond?
Amino Acids
Which action reduces the rate of chemical reaction?
decreasing the temperature of the reaction
If muscle fibers obey the all-or-none principle, how can skeltal muscles produce a graded contratction?
Different number of muscle fibers can be stimulater.
Which pair of prime movers are antagonists?
Lattissimus dorsi and pectoralis major.
What is a consequence of over-production of hormones by parathyroid gland?
Easily broken bones.
Which is the role of ionic calcium (Ca2+)?
Ca2+ moves 100% tropomyosin from mysoin binding sites.
Which axial bones have transverse foramins and bifida spinous process?
Cervical vertebrae.
The sutures of the skull are examples of which kind of joint?
Fibrous syntharthrosis.
Which is the body's energy source for a 100 mile bicycle race?
Aerobic metabolism.
which type of cell is responsible for secreting the matrix of bone?
which muscle extends the leg at the knee
rectus femoris
which action results when the lower extremity is moved away from the midline of the median plane?
which event causes the irreversible cross-linkage between actin and myosin during rigor mortis?
Cessation of ATP synthesis.
Which site is the location of the blood vessels that nourish the cells of compact bone?
Haversian canals
What is the effect of hypoventilation on the pH of body fluids.
the pH of body fluids falls due to the increased concertration of hydrogen ions.
Which process results in the loss of the least amount of water?
Why must the pH of blood be kept constant?
To maintain the function of proteins
Which cation is present in the highes concentration in ICF?
Potassium K+
Which statement indicates normal water gain and loss on a daily basis?
Water gain tends to equal water loss.
Which statement best describes pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
It lines most of the upper respiratory tract.
Which halves would be the result of a midsagittal section of the head?
R & L halves
Which transport mechanism is best adapted for moving large hydrophillic molecules from outside the cell, where its concentration is higher to the insided of the cell?
Facilitated diffusion
Which statement best describes the homeostasis of blood glucose.
Insulin is needed to stimulate most cells of the body to increase uptake of glucose
Which is the most superficial layer of the epidermis.
Stratum granulosum
Which type of fibers are present in the spinothalamic nerve tract?
somatic afferent
Which is the result of an excitatory postsynaptic potential?
increased Na+ permeability of cellular membranes.
A lesion is present in the ventral spinothalamic tract of the spinal cord on the right side at the second cervical level. Which part of the body will be unable to distinguis touch and pressure?
L side of the body below the neck.
The secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) leads to which process?
Stimulation of the adrenal cortex, causing the release of glucocorticoids.
Antidiuretic hormones (ADH) targets which organ to produce which action?
the kidney to reabsorb water.
Which condition stimulates increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
decreased blood calcium.
What is the nonvascular tranparent coat that covers the iris?
A mother is unable to produce enough milk to nurse her newborn. Which hormone imbalance is the cause of the problem?
Hyposecretion of prolactin.
Which hormone can raise blood glucose levels?
Which neurons synapse in an autonomic ganglion?
two motor neurons
The consumption of alcoholic beverages inhibits the secretion of which hormone?
What occurs when the process of accomodation is required for near vision?
The ciliary muscles contract and the lenses are rounded.
Which effect on sound waves results from the tympanic membrane collectiong vibrations and transmitting them to the oval window?
Which circumstance is required for a synapse to be excitatory?
Post synaptic membrane channels are open
Which part of the brain produces releasing hormones that control the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
A decreased sense of taste can result from injury to which canial nerve?
If several presynaptic neurons deliver an excitatory message to a postsynaptic neuron at the same time, the combined effect may initiate an action potential. What term describes an action potential in this way?
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by which gland?
Heroin relieves pain by mimicking the activity of which neurotransmitter?
Damage to which part of the brain will result in resting tremor, reduced ability to intiate movements and decreased dopamine levels?
Substantia nigra
What is the functional role of the otoliths of the inner ear?
Perceiving head postion relative to gravity
After blood donation, which hormone will be most involved in maintaining b/p and replacing lost blood volume?
Which hormone stimulates parturition?
Which cells of the testes produce testosterone?
intersitial cells
During the process of oogenesis when is meiosis I completed?
At ovulation
Which structure is the major source of the fructose secretions used by sperm cells for energy?
Seminal vesicle
When does the endometrium become thickest during the reproduction cycle?
Late in the secretory phase
Which function is the main role of human gonadotropin (hCG) during the first 3 months of pregnancy?
To stimulate the release of hormones from the corpus luteum.
Which statement is most descriptive of the corpus luteum?
It is the ruptured follicle resulting from ovulation.
Urine produced in the renal lobes collects in renal papillae and is then discharged directly into which part of the kidney?
Minor calyx
Under which condition would a person experience decreased production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
After drinking alcoholic beverages.
How is urine propelled from the kidney to the urinary bladder when an individual is lying down?
peristalsis in the ureter.
why is glucose in the urine characteristic of untreated diabetes?
Elevated blood glucose exceeds the renal transport maximum (Tm) leading to excessive glucose excretion into the urine.
What happens if body fluid osmolarity exceeds normal levels?
Antidiuretic hormone will increase.
Which event is a result of increased renin production of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Sodium reabsorption increase
If the spinal cord has been severed at the levels of the waist with no other injury, what will be the long-term effect on micturition?
the bladder will empty reflexivly without voluntary control.
Whcih type of epithelium lines the urinary bladder?
Which event increases the glomerular filtration rate?
Afferent arteriolar vasodilation
Which structures comprise the renal corpuscle?
Bowmans capsule and glomerulus.