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69 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy
the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another.
Physiology
the study of how the body and its parts work or function
7 Levels Of Structural Complexity
Atoms, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organisms
Integumentary System
external covering of the body; skin.
cushions
protects
excretes salts in perspiration
regulate temperature, pressure, pain receptors
Skeletal System
bones, carilages, ligaments, joints
framework of skeletal muscles
support
calcium storage
used to cause movement
blood cells formed within bones
Muscular System
skeletal muscles
provide movement through contraction
move fluid (hollow)
Nervous System
fast acting control system
brain
spinal cord
nerves
sensory receptors
Endocrine System
controls body activities
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pneal, ovaries, tests
secrete hormones
responsible for growth, reproduction, food use
Circulatory System
transport and delivery system containing two major organ systems:
1. Cardiovascular - heart and blood vessels...carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances
2. Lymphatic - lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, other lymphatic organs such as spleen, tonsils..return fluid leaked from blood back to blood vessels. cleanses blood
Respiratory System
Keeps body supplied with oxygen, responsible for removal of C02
nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Digestive System
system responsible for the breakdown of food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells; indigestible food stuffs are elminated as feces
oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, sm lg intestines, rectum, anus
Urinary System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body, regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood
kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
Reproductive System
System responsible for the production of offspring
seminal vesciles, prostate gland, vas deferenes, testis, scortum, penis
mammary glands, uterine tube, ovaries, uterus, vagina
Necessary Life Functions
1. Maintaining Boundaries (integ, cell wall)
2. Movement (skel/musc)
3. Responsiveness (nerv)
4. Digestion (cardio/digest)
5. Metabolism (digest/resp)
6. Excretion (urinary, lymph, digest)
7. Reproduction (sexual)
8. Growth (endocrine)
Survival Needs
Things required for an organism to live

Nutrients
Oxygen
Water
Body Temperature
Air Pressure
Homeostasis
descirbes the body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Receptor (afferent pathway) Control Center (efferent) Effector...
Negative Feedback Mech
Positiev Feedback Mech
Negative Feedback Mechanism
causes a response that returns the variable condition back to baseline function
Positive Feedback Mechanism
Illicits a response that continues until the variable condition ceases.
Feedback Mechanisms
Processes that help maintain internal environments
Directional Terms
Terms used by medical personnel to explain exactly which part of the body structure they are referring to in reference to other body parts
Superior
toward the head, above
inferior
away from head end or toward lower part of body, below
anterior
toward front of body
posterior (dorsal)
Toward backside of body
Medial
Toward or at the midline of the body, on the inner side of
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
intermediate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure (collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder)
Proximal
Close to the origin of the bdoy part of the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
superficial
more toward the skin
deep
away from body surface
Abdominal
Abdominal
Antecubital
Antecubital
Axillary
armpit
brachial
arm
buccal
cheek area
cervical
neck area
digital
fingers, toes
femoral
thigh
inguinal
area where thigh meets body trunk
oral
mouth
orbital
eye
patellar
aneterior knee
pubic
genital region
thoracic
chest
umbilical
navel
Deltoid
shoulder blade
gluteal
buttock
lumbar
area of back between ribs and hips
occipital
posterior surface of back of the head
popliteal
posterior knee area
scapular
shoulder blade region
sural
posterior surface of lower leg; calf
Median (midsaggital) plane
Center line, head to between feet
Frontal (coronal) plane
Left to right cut, lengthwise down ribs
Transverse plane
cutting body in two
Dorsal (posterior) Cavity
cranial cavity and spinal cavity
Ventral (anterior) cavity
thoracic (chest) cavity, abdomiopelvic cavity
Right upper quadrant
Left upper
Right lower
left lower
same
Right hypochondriac region
right side, ribs
epigastric region
middle top, b/w ribs
Left hypochondriac region
left top, ribs
right lumbar
right side, middle
left lumbar region
left side, middle
umbilical region
middle
Right iliac region
Right hip
Hypogastric Region
between hips, pubic cavity is deep
left iliac region
left hip