Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/84

Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Study of the ear, nose, & throat.
Otorhinolaryngology
Actual dr/ scientist that studies the lungs.
Pulmonologist
Study of the disease processes associated with the lungs.
Pumonopathy
Main function is gas exchange.
Respiratory system
Main function is transportation of gas.
Circulatory System
What are the 2 causes of respiratory system failure?
1. Cell death due to lack of oxygen
2. Build-up of waste products in system
What are the 3 stages of respiration?
1. Ventilation / breathing
2. External / pulmonary
3. Internal / tissue
Type of respiration that is a mechanical flow of air into and out of the lungs
ventilation / breathing
Type of respiration that is the exchange of gases between air spaces of the lungs and the blood in pulmonary capillaries; blood gains oxygen and gains carbon dioxide
External / pulmonary
Type of respiration that is the exchange of gases between the blood in systemic capillaries and the tissue cells; blood loses carbon dioxide and gains oxygen.
Internal / tissue
Breathing air in
Inspiration
Breathing air out
expiration
The 6 parts that make up the respiratory system
nose, pharynx (throat), larynx (voicebox), trachea (windpipes), bronchi, lungs
Medical term for throat
pharynx
Medical term for voicebox
larynx
Medical term for windpipes
trachea
The 2 divisions of the respiratory system
upper (head / throat) and
lower (thoracic cavity)
What are the 2 functioning parts of the respiratory system
conducting portion and respiratory portion
Functioning part of the respiratory system that is serves as the pathway; directs air into the lungs portion; associated with the upper division
conduction portion
Functioning part of the repiratory system that is the area where actual gas exchange occurs; associated with the lower division
respiratory portion
What are the functions of the protruding portion of the nose?
1. Secretion of mucous- traps foreign particles, provides moisture/ lubrication

2. Lined with cilia- sweeps and filters debris
Name the 3 bones of the bony portion of the nose
1. frontal bone
2. nasal bone (procerus)
3. maxillae
Functions of the inferior portion of the nose
warmth, moisture, filtering, incoming air, and smell
Function is communication with nasal sinuses / nasopharynx
internal nares
The nasal cavity is divided into left and right by
nasal septum
Muscular tube lined with mucous membrane
pharynx
The 3 segments of the pharynx
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Segment of the pharynx, function is respiration
nasopharynx
Segment of the pharynx, function is digestion / passageway of air and food
oropharynx
Segment of the pharynx, function is respiration
nasopharynx
Segment of the pharynx that aids in digestion / passageway for air and food
oropharynx and laryngopharynx
2 answers
Passageway that connects pharynx with trachea
larynx
Larynx contains what type of cartilage?
thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple)
Small flap of skin in larynx used to close off trachea / esophagus
epiglottis
Voice is produced within the _____.
Larynx
Extends from larynx to primary bronchi.
trachea
Trachea is composed of what type of muscle?
smooth muscle (pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium)
Open the airway, ciliated, located in the trachea
Cartilage rings
Name the 2 trachea bypass procedures
1. tracheostomy
2. intubation
Trachea divides into left and right halves called:
pulmonary (primary bronchi)
Bronchial tree:
1. Trachea
2. Primary bronchi
3. Secondary bronchi
4. Tertiary bronchi
5. Bronchioles
6. Terminal bronchioles
Walls of bronchi and bronchioles are composed of what type of muscle?
smooth
Paired organs, located in the thoracic cavity in the pleural cavity subdivision.
lungs
Fluid that protects the lungs:
pleural fluid
Name the 2 membranes in the pleural cavity:
parietal and visceral
Type of membrane that lines the walls of the pleural cavity
parietal
Type of membrane in the pleural cavity that covers the lung
visceral
Lungs extend from _____ to slightly above the _____; fill majority of _____ cavity.
diaphragm, clavicle, thoracic
Surrounded by pleura where bronchi, blood, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit.
hilus
Located within the lung; consist of type I and type II _____ cells.
alveoli, alveolar
Type of alveolar cell, squamous pulmonary epithelium
type 1
Type of alveolar cell, sepat cells
type 2
Alveoli walls enclose _____.
macrophages (dust cells)
Secreted by type II alveolar cells; surfactant- helps to maintain moisture needed for diffusion of gases.
alveolar fluid
Lungs have a double _____ supply.
oxygen; pulmonary arteries / pulmonary circulation and bronchial arteries / systemic circulation
Lungs have a double _____ return.
blood; pulmonary veins and bronchial veins
Process by which gases are exchanged between the atmosphere and lung alveoli
pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
Exchange occurs in pulmonary ventilation due to
pressure gradients
Volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure, assuming that temperature is constant
boyle's law
law
7 steps of ventilation:
1. Alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure decreases below atmospheric pressure
2. Contraction of diaphragm / external intercostal muscles
3. Increase in size of thoracic cavity
4. Decrease in intrapleural (intrathoracic) pressure
5. Lungs expand
6. Decrease in alveolar pressure
7. Air moves along pressure gradient from atmosphere into lungs
7 steps of exhalation:
1. Alveolar pressure increases above atmospheric pressure
2. Relaxation of diaphragm / external intercostal muscles
3. Elastic recoil of thoracic cavity / lungs (decrease in size)
4. Increase in intrapleural pressure
5. Decrease in lung volume
6. Increase in alveolar pressure
7. Air moves from lungs to atmosphere
Filling of pleural cavity with air:
pneumothorax
Filling of pleural cavity with water:
hydrothorax
Ease with which the thoracic walls expand:
compliance
An opposing force of the normal flow of air into the lungs
resistance
Normal variation in breathing rate / depth
eupnea
Breath holding
apnea
Painful / difficult breathing
dyspnea
Rapid breathing rate
tachypnea
Combination of various patterns, increase breathing for exercise
costal breathing
Normal mode of operation of contraction / relaxation of diaphragm during breathing
diaphragmatic breathing
Used to express emotions, clear air passageways movements
modified respiratory movements
Oxygen deficiency and the tissue level
hypoxia
Instrument used to measure air volumes during breathing
spiromometer / respirometer
Actual recording of measurements
spirogram
Located within the pons, coordinate transition between inhalation / exhalation
pneumotaxic area
Send impulses to inhalation areas, prolong inhalation / suppress exhalation
apneustic area
Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the otehr gases were not present
dalton's law
law
Pressure exerted by a particular gas within a mixture of gases
partial pressure of gas
law
The quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of a gas and its solubility coefficient, when temperature remains constant
Henri's law
law
Transports 98.5% oxygen formed in elements and 1.5% oxygen in plasma
hemoglobin
Study of structures / functions of the digestive system (gastrointestinal tract)
gastroenterology
Study of the disease processes of the GI Tract
proctology
Doctor that studies the disease processes of the GI Tract
proctologist