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29 Cards in this Set

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Origin Anterior surface of lateral process of sacrum and gluteal surface of ilium at the margin of the greater sciatic notch
Insertion Superior border of greater trochanter
Action: laterally rotates thigh
Piriformis
Origin Anterior part of the popliteal groove on lateral surface of lateral femoral condyle
Insertion Posterior surface of tibia in a fan-like fashion, just superior to the popliteal line
Action Felexes and medially rotates leg
Popliteus
Origin Internal surface of obturator membrane and posterior bony margins of obturator foramen
Insertion Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur, in common with superior and inferior gemelli
Action Laterally rotates thigh
Obturator Internus
Origin Anterior surface of inferior pubic ramus, inferior to origin of adductor longus
Insertion Pectineal line and superior part of medial lip of linea aspera
Action Abducts and medially rotates thigh
Abductor Brevis
Origin: From lateral lip of linea aspera, and lateral supracondylar ridge of femur.
Insertion: Primarily on fibular head; also on lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle
Action: Flexes leg
Biceps Femoris Short Head
Origin Dorsal ilium between inferior and anterior gluteal lines; also from edge of greater sciatic notch
Insertion Anterior surface of greater trochanter
Action Abducts and medially rotates the hip joint
Gluteus Minimus
Origin Anterior surface of the fibula and the adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion Base and dorsal center of distal phalanx of great toe
Action Extends great toe and dorsiflexes and inverts foot
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Origin Inferior 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula, lower part of interosseous membrane
Insertion Plantar surface of base of distal phalanx of great toe
Action Flexes Hallux, plantarflexes and inverts foot
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Origin Posterior surface of tibia distal to popliteal line
Insertion Splits into four slips after passing through medial intermuscular septum of plantar surface of foot; these slips then insert on plantar surface of bases of 2nd - 5th distal phalanges
Action Flexes toes 2 - 5; also helps in plantar flexion and inversion of foot
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Origin: Posterior aspect of interosseous membrane, superior 2/3 of medial posterior surface of fibula, superior aspect of posterior surface of tibia,
Insertion Splits into two slips after passing inferior to plantar calcaneonavicular ligament; superficial slip inserts on the tuberosity of the navicular bone deeper slip divides again into slips inserting on plantar sufraces of metatarsals 2 - 4 and second cuneiform
Action Principal invertor of foot; plantar flexes ankle,
Tibialis Posterior
Origin Inferior 2/3 of lateral fibular surface; also anterior and posterior intermuscular septa of leg
Insertion Lateral surface of styloid process of 5th metatarsal base
Action Everts foot and plantar flexes ankle
Fibularis Brevis
Origin Medial third of superior nuchal line; external occipital protruberance, nuchal ligament, and spinous processes of C7 - T12 vertebrae
Insertion Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula
Action Elevates, depresses, rotates, and retracts scapula
Trapezius
Origin Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs
Insertion Floor of intertubercular groove of humerus
Action Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus;
Latissimus Dorsi
Orign: spinous processes of T2 - T5 vertebrae
Insertion: Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle
Action: Rotates downward and retracts scapula
Rhomboid Major
Origin: Nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae
Insertion Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle
Action: Rotates downward and retracts scapula
Rhomboid Minor
Origin Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae
Insertion Superior part of medial border of scapula
Action Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
Levator Scapulae
Origin 3rd to 5th ribs near their costal cartilages
Insertion Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula
Action: Depresses, protracts and rotates scapula downward
Pectoralis Minor
Origin: Anterior and superior margins of ribs 1-8 or 1-9

Insertion: Anteriro surface of vertebral border of scapula.

Action: Protracts and rotates scapula upwards.
Serratus Anterior
Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle
Trapezius
Rhomboid major
Rhomboid Minor
Levator Scapulae
Pectoralis Minor
Serratus Anterior

* Actions of these muscles involve the movement of the scapula.**
Muscles of the Shoulder Joint
Pectoralis Major
Latissimus Dorsi
Deltoid
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Subscapularis
Teres minor
Teres major
Coracobrachialis

*Actions of these muscles involve the movement of the arm**
Muscles of the Elbow Joint
Biceps brachii long head
Biceps brachii short head
Brachialis
Tricepts brachii long head
Tricepts brachii lateral head
Tricepts brachii medial head
Brachioradialis
Pronator Teres
Supinator

Action of these muscles involve the movement of the forearm.
Muscles of the Wrist Joint
Wrist Flexors:
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Palmaris longus

Wrist Extensors:
Extensor Digitorum
Extensor Carpi Radialis
Muscles of the Hip Joint
Psoas major
Iliacus
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Tensor fascae latae
Piriformis
Obturator internus
Adductor magnus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Pectinueus
Muscles of the hip and knee Joint
Gracilis
Sartorius
Rectus Femoris
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Biceps femoris long head
Muscles of the knee joint
Biceps femoris short head
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Popliteus
Muscles of the knee and ankle joint
Gastrocnemius: medial head and
lateral head.
Muscles of the ankle joint
Tibialis anterior
Tibialis posterior
Extensor hallucis longus
Extensor digitorum longus
Fibularis longus
Fibularis brevis
Soleus
Flexor digitorum longus
Muscles of Massication
Muscles that move the mandible:

Masseter
Temporalis
Playsma

Platysma and Masseter are antagonistic pairs.
Steps that result in the contraction of Skeletal Muscle (Sliding filament theory)
1. The motor neuron at the neuormuscular juntion releases acetylcholine (Ach) to bind to the sarcolemma of the skeletal muscle fiber.
2. The signal spreads throughout sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fiber
3. The sginal is spread down T-tubules to center of cell.
4. T-tubules spread signal to cell interior and pass signal to the Sarcoplasmic Recticulum (SR).
5. Calcium is relesed from the SR
6. Calcium combines with the troponin-tropomysonsin complex on actin exposing binding sites for myosin.
7. Myosin crossbridge heads with ATP go from a low affinity state to a high affinity state by splitting ATP into ADP + Pi causing heads to attach to binding sites on actin.
8. Attachement of myosin to actin results in the release of Pi and actin "slides" past myosin (sarcomeres shorten/ muscle cell shortens/ z lines pull together)
10. ATP molecule binds to myosin heads resulting in the release of crossbridge attachment to actin.