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45 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of bone?
-Attaches to muscles ligaments and fascia
-protects vital organs
-storage for calcium
-gives support
-hematopoiesis
Osteoporois
loss of collagen, less dense, lose height, brittle.
osteoarthritis
joint deterioration
arthritis
degeneration of the articular cartilage- joint cartilage= hylaine cartilage
Bone is composed of:
2/3 mineral components that make bone stiff

1/3 organic material that make bone elastic
How do bones grow?
what is the center cavity called?
Bones grow from the middle outward and the center cavity is called the medullary cavity
Epiphysis
Long end of the bone separated from the main shaft by cartilage.
Diaphysis
shaft or central part of the bone
what are the three layers of bone starting from the articular cartilage on the epiphysis?
Hylaine
Compact bone
Cancellous (spongy bone)
Axial skeleton
Skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, hyoid bone
Appendicular skeleton
Pectoral girdle
Clavical
Scapula
Humerus
Radius, Ulna
Carpal
Metacarpal
Phalanges
Types of bones:
Long bones: femur
Short bones: carpal and tarsal bones
Flat bones: Scapula
Irregular bones: vertebrae
Sesamoid: developed in tendons, patella and small bones under the ball of the foot.
What are the three categories of joints and what does each one mean?
-Synarthroses (synarthroidial) or immovable joints.
-amphiarthroses (slightly movable.
-Diarthroses (freely movable)
Give the subcategories of synarthrodial joints
syndemoses (partly movable fibrous joints)
-interosseous ligaments between bones of the tibia and fibula or radius and ulna.
Synarthroses are under what large category?
ligaments
synarthroses are those in which the articulating bones are connected by ( )
Fibrous tissue
teeth
skull sutures
amphiarthrodial joints fall under what large subcategory?
Fibrocartilage.
what is an example of a fibrocartilaginous joint?
The intervertebral disks
the symphysis pubis
Costochondral (rib to sternum)
Name 5 characteristics of a synovial joint.
- Is separated by articulating bones
- Articulating bones are capped with hylaine cartilage.
-Articular (synovial) capsule with synovial fluid.
-Bursae
Give three examles of a gliding joint
Acromioclavicular
Intercarpal
Intertarsal
Facets of the vertebrae
Ellipsoidal
Radiocarpal
occipitoatlantal
Ball and socket
Coxafemural
Saddle joint
sternoclavicular
thumb joint
Pivot
Atlantoaxial
Hinge
Interphalangeal
What are 5 characteristics of stability?
-Resistance to movement and displacement
-ligaments create stability
-muscles stablaize
-fascia
-atmospheric pressure
What are 5 characteristics of mobility?
-Range of motion
-Sex
-Personal exercise routine
-Occupation
-Body Build
What are the three strongest joints in order from strongest to weakest?
1. Hip
2. Elbow
3. Ankle
What is a bursa sac?
Sac-like membranes filled with fluid which prevents friction between tendon and bone.
Describe a first class lever
R A M
Describe a second class lever
A R M (Releve)
Describe a third class lever
A M R (arm lifting heavy object)
What are some purposes of the axial skeleton?
-Support skull
-Shock absorber
-transmitts weight throughout vertebral bodies
-permits movement in all directions.
What are the 4 curves of the spine?

How many vertebrae are in each curve?
-7 vertebrae in the cervical spine.

- 12 in thoracic

- 5 in lumbar

-5 in sacrum
Movement of the spine is determined by:
Thickness of interveterbral disks

angle of articular facets

shape of spinous processes
What is scoliosis?
Lateral misalignment of the spine
What is lordosis?
Anterior rotation of pelvis (butt sticks out)
What is kyphosis?
posterior drop in the thorax (shoulders cave inward)
What is the outer edge of the body of the vertebrae called?
annulus fibrosis
What is the inner edge of the body of the vertebrae called?
Nucleus pulposis
What does the anterior longitudinal ligament do?
It prevents the disk from moving anteriorally.
Where does the supraspinous ligament run from?
C7 all the way posteriorally
Describe the bodies of the cervical spine
disks are 1/3 the size of bodies

bodies are smaller

side bending is restricted by rectangular shape of body.
Facets of the Thorax
horizontal in picture (vertical in actuality)
Facets of the lumbar:

processes of lumbar:
Superior is medial
Inferior is lateral

thicker and parallel
lima bean shaped.