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186 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Week 2 following fertilization
completion of implantation
bilaminar disc (epiblast and hypoblast)
amniotic cavity
yolk sac
Week 3 following fertilization
Trilaminar disc
neural tube
somite formation
blood and blood vessels
critical period for malformation
3-4 weeks
Neural Crest derivatives
sensory ganglia, autonomic ganglia, Schwann cells, chromaffin cells (medulla), melanocytes, branchial arch cartilage and mesenchyme
Ectoderm derivatives
CNS, PNS, Neural crest, Epidermis, hair, nails, Pituitary, Tooth enamel, Inner ear, Lens
Endoderm derivatives
Epithelium of digestive and respiratory tracts
Digestive tube
epithelium of Urinary bladder, urethra, prostate
Mesoderm derivatives
connective tissue
heart and vessels
spleen and adrenal cortex
gonads and most of GU
dermis of skin
dentine of tooth
Neural tube wall - ventricular layer fate
Neural tube wall - intermediate (mantle zone) fate
gray matter
Neural tube wall - marginal zone fate
white matter
Alar plate derivative
dorsal horn of spinal cord, colliculi, and cerebellum
Basal plate derivatives
ventral horn of spinal cord
motor nuclei
fate of myelencephalon
medulla oblongata
fate of metencephalon
pons and cerebellum
fate of mesencephalon
fate of diencephalon
thalamus, and hypothalamus
fate of telencephalon
cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia
neurohypophysis derived from
neuroectoderm of diencephalon
adenohypophysis derived from
oral ectoderm of stomodeum
inner layer of optic cup becomes
neural retina
outer layer of optic cup becomes
pigment epithelium
lens develops from
lens vesicle (surface ectoderm)
choroid and sclera develop from
surrounding Mesoderm
critical period for eye development
22-50 days
congenital hole in part of the eye usually the iris
first (mandibular) arch derivatives
Cartilage - incus and malleus

Muscles - muscles of masstication, ant. belly of digastric, mylohyoid, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini

Nerve - trigeminal

Artery- maxillary
second (hyoid) arch derivatives
cartilage - stapes, styloid process, parts of hyoid

muscles - facial expression, stylohyoid, post. belly of digastric, stapedius

nerve - facial
thrid arch derivatives
cartilage - body and greatercornu of hyoid bone

muscle - stylopharyngeus

nerve - glossopharyngeal

artery - common carotid and internal carotid
fourth arch derivatives
cartilage - laryngeal cartilages

muscles - pharyngeal (except stylopharyngeus) palatal except tensor veli palatini, cricothyroid

artery - left side: aortic arch
right side: subclavianartery
sixth arch derivatives
muscles - laryngeal muscles except cricothyroid

nerve - recurrent branch of vagus

artery - left: ductus arteriosus
right: right pulmonary artery
pharyngeal pouch derivatives:
1 - auditory tube, mastoid antrum, part of tympanic membrane
2 - epithelium of palatine tonsil
3 - inferior parathyroid and thymus
4 - superior parathyroids
pharyngeal groove derivatives:
1 - external acoustic meatus, part of tympanic membrane
2,3, and 4 - cervical sinus
formation of the diaphragm
septum transversum - central tendon
dorsal mesentery of the esophagus - crura
pleuroperitoneal membrane
body wall
innervation of the diaphragm
C3, 4, 5 by phrenic nerve
pleuropericardial membrane becomes
the fibrous pericardium
foregut derivatives
pharynx, lower respiratory tract, esophagus, stomach, duodenum proximal to major duodenal papilla, liver, pancreas, biliary apparatus

Ciliac trunk

Malformations: TE fistula, esophageal atresia, annular pancreas
midgut derivatives
duodenum distal to major duodenal papilla to proximal 2/3 of transverse colon

artery = SMA

rotates 270 degrees

Congenital malformations: Meckel's, omphalocele, intestinal stenosis and atresia
hindgut derivatives
distal 1/3 of transverse colon ti superior anal canal, epithelium of urinary bladder

blood by IMA

Congenital malformations: Hirschprung's and imperforate anus
fate of truncus arteriosus
ascending aorta
pulmonary trunk
fate of bulbus cordis
conus arteriosus
aortic vestibule
trabeculated part of rigth ventricle
fate of sinus venosus
sinus venarum of right atrium (smooth part)
coronary sinus
ligamentum teres hepatis progenitor
umbilical vein
ligamentum venosum progenitor
ductus venosus
ligamentum arteriosum progenitor
ductus arteriosus
medial umbilical ligament progenitor
umbilical arteries
adult derivatives of ureteric bud
renal pelvis
major and minor calyces
collecting tubules
adult derivatives of metanephric mass
Bowman's capsule
Proximal convoluted tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal convulted tubule
adult derivatives of urogenital sinus
epithelium of bladder
epithelium of urethra
congenital malformations of the kidney
horseshoe, pancake, ectopic, agenesis, ectopic ureter, bifid ureter, urachal cyst and fistula
fracture at the surgical neck of the humerus
axillary nerve
Most fractured bone in the hand
fracture at the distal end of the humerus
median nerve
fracture at the medial epicondyle of the humerus
ulnar nerve
When axillary artery is ligated what provides collateral flow?
Suprascapular artery to the subscapular artery
Anterior compartment of the arm
innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve

flex at the elbow and shoulder
biceps also supinates the forearm
Posterior compartment of the arm
innervated by the radial nerve
extension at the elbow.
triceps also extends the shoulder
Anterior compartment of the forearm
innervated by the median nerve (except the flexor carpi ulnaris and the ulnar half of the flexor digitorum profundus.

arise from the medial epicondyle

flew the wrist or pronate the forearm
Posterior compartment of the forearm
innervated by the radial nerve

arise from the lateral epicondyle and extend the wrist or supinate the forearm
main stabilizing force of the acromiioclavicular joint
coracoclavicular ligament
force at the wrist is transmitted to the radius
force at the elbow is transmitted from the
ulnar bone to the humerus
Nursemaid's elbow
pull head of the radius of the annular ligament
The first two wrist bones to ossify are the
capitate and the hamate
Most frequently dislocated bone of the wrist
Injury of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus
Erb-Duchennepalsy, waiter's tip. medial rotation and wrist pronated
Spiral fracture of the humerus
radial nerve damaged

wrist drop
Carpal tunnel syndrome
inflammation under the flexor retinaculum
Anterior compartment of the thigh
extensors of the knee

femoral nerve (L2, L3, L4)
Adductor compartment of the thigh
obturator nerve (L2, L3, L4)
Hamstring compartment of the thigh
flexors of the knee and extensors of the hip

tibial nerve
Anterior crural compartment of the leg
dorsiflex the ankle and extend the toes

deep fibular (peroneal) nerve
Lateral crural compartment of the leg
evert the foot

superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve
Posterior crural compartment of the leg
plantar flex the foot and flex the toes

tibial nerve
Dorsum of the foot
extensor digitorum brevis

deep fibular (peroneal) nerve
Sole of the foot
lateral plantar nerve

medial plantar nerve - abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, flexor hallucis brevis, and first lumbrical
Importance of the retinacular artery
blood supply of the head of the femur
The most imporatant muscle in stabilization of the knee joint
Quadriceps femoris
Unhappy triad
tibial collateral ligament, medial meniscus, and ACL
Hip pain is referred to the
The main support for the medial longitudianal arch and the most important ligament in the foot is the
calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament
Injury to the superior gluteal nerve
positive trendelenburg test
gluteus minimus
tilts to the unsupported side
Injury of the inferior gluteal nerve
gluteus maximus not working

extension of hip not working
hard to rise from seated or climbing stairs
Injury of the common fibular (peroneal) nerve
injured by fracture of the neck of the fibula

no dorsiflexion or eversion

Foot Drop
Sensory of the cornea
Trigeminal nerve
Mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
proprioception of mastication
Geniculate ganglion
afferent fibers for taste on ant. 2/3 of tongue
Superior salivary nucleus
preganglionic to pterygopalatine (tears from lacrimal gland) and submandibular gangliion (secretion from submandibular and sublingual salivary glands)
Course of the facial nerve
- enters internal acoustic meatus with CN VIII
- at geniculate ganglion gives off great petrosal nerve
- passes through medial and posterior walls of tympanic cavity
- gives of nerve to stapedius and the chorda tympani
- leaves skull through the stylomastiod foramen
- enters the parotid (but does not innervate the parotid)
- branches to muscles of mastication
recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies all muscles of the larynx except the
Nerves from the superior cervical ganglion innervate the
superior tarsal muscle
dilator pupillae muscle
smooth muscle in vessel walls
sweat glands of the face
Ciliary ganglion

cilary muscle
sphoincter pupillae
Pterygopalatine ganglion

lacrimal gland
nasal and palatine glands
submandibular ganglion
submandibular gland
sublingual gland
otic ganglion

parotid gland
Terminal ganglion

glands and smooth muscle in viscera down to splenic flexure
Terminal ganglion in sacrum
S2, 3, 4

Glands and smooth muscle in pelvic viscera
aqueous humor is jsecreted into the (where in the eye)
posterior chamber

behind iris, in front of the lens
Corneal blink reflex
aff. through ophthalmic division of V
Eff from facial nerve to orbicularis oculi
Lacrimal apparatus
gland, to duct, to puncta, to canalicuslus, to sac

drains into inferior meatus
middle ear innervated by
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Medial to the tympanic cavity
lateral semicircular canal, facial nerve, vestibule, cochlea
Lateral to the tympanic cavity
external acoustic meatus
Anterior to the tympanic cavity
internatl carotid artery, auditory tube
Posterior to the tympanic cavity
mastoid air cells
Superior to the tympanic cavity
middle cranial fossa with temporal lobe
Inferior to the tympanic cavity
internal jugular vein
Bony labyrinth of the internal ear
semicircular canals
Membranous labyrinth of the internal ear
Cochlear duct
Utricle and saccule
Semicircular ducts
afferent fibers from nerve cells in vestibular ganglion
travel in VII
end on hair cells in the maculae of the utricle and the saccule and in the cristae of the ampullae of the semicircular ducts
synpase in the vestibular nuclei and in the cerebellum
Afferent fibers in the spiral ganglion
travel in CN VIII
end on hair cells in the spiral organ of Corti

synapse in the cochlear nuclei
Arterial supply of the nasal septum
sphenopalatine from the maxillary artery

Kiesselbach's plexus
Middle meatus
most important

maxiallary and frontal sinuses drain here
anterior ehtmoid air cells drain here
Inferior meatus
opening of the nasolacrimal duct
Superior meatus
opening for posterior ethmoid air cells
Frontal and sphenoid sinuses can be seen on CT when?
after birth, they develop later than the maxillary and ethmoids
Synovial joints of the larynx
cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid
posterior cricoarytenoid muscles...
abduct the vocal cords

open the airway so you can breathe
Superior laryngeal nerve
supplies cricothyroid muscle which tenses vocal cords

mucosa above the cords
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
supplies mucosa below the vocal vords
Lymph in the vocal cord
no lymphatics in cords

upper part drains to deep cervical nodes

lower part drains to lower deep cervical nodes
genioglossus acts to
protrude the tongue
styloglossus acts to
retract the tongue
general sensation on the ant. 2/3 of tongue by
lingual nerve from mandibular division of trigeminal
general sensation on the post. 1/3 of tongue by
glossopharyngeal nerve
taste sensation on the ant. 2/3 of tongue by
facial nerve by way of the geniculate ganglion and the chorda tympani
taste sensation on the post. 1/3 of tongue by
glossopharyngeal nerve
circumvalate papilla
layers of the scalp
2)superficial fascia
3)galea aponeurotica
4)loose CT (danger space)
Cavernous sinus contains
1) internal carotid artery
2) oculomotor nerve
3) trochlear nerve
4) opthalmic division of trigeminal nerve
5) abducens nerve
Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
Optic canal
CN II and opthalmic artery
Superior orbital fissure
CN III, IV, V (opthalmic), and VI and superior opthalmic vein
Foramen rotundum
maxillary divsion of trigeminal
Foramen ovale
mandibular division of trigeminal
Internal acoustic meatus
CN VII, VIII, and labyrinthe artery
Jugular foramen
CN IX, X, and XI, inferior petrosal sinus, sigmoid sinus
Hypoglossal canal
Foramen magnum
CNS, vertebral arteries, XI, meninges, CSF
Deep and superficial nodes drain into
thoracic duct on the left, right lymphatic duct on the right
Where is the caudal end of the adult spinal cord with respect to the vertebral columns
L1 - L2
Manubriosteranl junction as a landmark for:
bifurcation of the trachea
boundary between superior and inferior mediastinum
beginning and ending of the aortic arch
serratus anterior innervated by
long thoracic nerve
damage causes winged scapula
Branches of the right coronary artery:
SA nodal artery
marginal artery
AV nodal artery
posterior interventricular artery
Where do you put a needle to remove fluid in a cardiac tamponade
left xiphisternal notch
hilums of the lungs
pulmonary artery
2 pulmonary veins - most anterior and inferior
bronchus - most posterior
pulmonary ligament
pleural fold extending downward from the hilum
Middle Mediastinum
fibrous pericardium

phrenic nerve and vessels accompanying it
Posterior mediastinum
esophagus, descending aorta, thoracic duct, azygos vein
Esophagus natural constriction points
cricoid cartilage
arch of the aorta
bifurcation of the trachea

found in the superior and posterior mediastinum
azygos vein
drains body wall from intercostal veins from right and hemiazygos from left
thoracic duct
between azygos and aorta and passes to the left of the aortic arch
cardiac plexus
vagal efferents
esophageal plexus
preganglionic parasympathetics (vagal)
postganglionic sympathetics
afferent fibers
dermatome of the nipple
dermatome of the umbilicus
dermatome of the pubis
arcuate line
inferior limit of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath
transversalis fascia
aka diaphragmatic fascia
aka iliac fascia
aka psoas fascia
aka pelvic fascia
directly behind the rectus sheath beneath the arcuate line
transverse incisions in the abdomen
parallel the nerves and are advisable
vertical incisions in the midline of the abdomen
do little damage to nerves or muscle
pararectal are transverse incisions that damage nerves
direct inguinal hernia
medial to the inferior epigastric artery

through the Hasselbach's triangle
indirect inguinal hernia
lateral to the inferior epigastric artery

covered by the tunica vaginalis
scrotum lymph drains to
inguinal nodes
testis lymph drains to the
lumbar nodes
how the two omental sacs communicate
throught the epoiploic foramen of Winslow

- bounded inferiorly by hepatoduodenal ligament, the structures it contains (liver and 1st part of duodenum), and the inferior vena cava
remnants of the dorsal mesentery
greater omentum, gastrosplenic ligament, lienorenal ligament
remenants of the ventral mesentery
lesser omentum (hepatogastric ligament and hepatoduodenal ligament), and the falciform ligament
retroperitoneal organs
ascending colon, descending colon, 2nd and 3rd and 4th parts of duodenum
dorsal mesentery
jejunum, ileum, transverse colon, and sigmoid colon
Distinguishing features of large intestine
tenia coli, haustra coli, appendices epiploicae, and plicae semilunares
Distinguishing features of small intestine
villi and plicae circulares
jejunum vs. ileum
jejunum has a larger diameter, a thicker wall, more prominent plicae
meckel's diverticulum a remnany of
the vitelline duct
(duct to the yolk sac)
meckel's rule of 2
in about 2%, within 2 ft of ileocecal valve, 2 inches long, 2 types of tissue,
rotation of the gut
270 around the SMA
Major sites of anastamosis of the arteries of the gut
left and right gastric arteries
left and right gastroepiploic arteries

pancreticoduodenal arteries

left colic flexure by the marginal artery
Collateral circulation of an obstructed IVC
thoracoepigastric veins, vertebral venous plexues, ascending lumbar vein
Gonadal vein
left gonadal drains into left renal vein; right gonadal vein to IVC
I 8 ten Eggs At 12
IVC and phrenic - T8
Esophagus and vagal n. - T10
Aorta - T12
Gerota's fascia or capsule
surrounds the kidney
Bladder innervation
from S2, 3, and 4
postganglionic efferents in bladder wall
female ureter
water runs under the bridge

uterine artery goes over ureter and enters cervix at level of the external os
Uterus is normally positioned
anteverted and anteflexed
Broad ligament

lymphatic drainage of the uterus
Transection of the spongy urethra, urine is confined to
Colle's fascia in the perineum and Scarpa's fascia in the lower anterior abdominal wall
Seminal vesicle
not a storage site

unites with ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct
Ischiorectal fossa
Medial - levator ani
lateral - obturator internus
Pudendal canal contains: internal pudendal vessels and pudendal nerve in fascia of obturator internus
Anterior recess: superior to urogenital diaphragm