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228 Cards in this Set

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List the seven functions of the digestive system
ingestion,mechanical processing,digestion,secretion,absorption,compaction,elimination
How long is digestive tube?
25 feet long, changes shape,several glands secrete into tube
List the six components of the oral cavity
Palate,tongue,vestibule,teeth,frenulum,salivary ducts
what are the three components of the salivary glands?
parotid,submandibular,sublingual
What is the function of salivary gland
produce secretion to lube food, secretes amylase
what is amylase? What 2 glands secret it
breaks down starches into simple sugars. Parotid,salivary
Is the parotid gland the largest of the 3 glands?
yes
Mumps is part of which gland?
parotid
What is the location of the submandibular gland?
medial to the body of the mandible
What does this gland produce
Saliva only-no enzyme
Where is the location fo the sublingual gland?
floor of the mouth. Produces only saliva no enzyme
What are the four layers of the tube from outer to deep
serosa:CT,Muscular:longitudinal and circular,submucosa,mucosa
What is the function of the Esophagus
transports food from pharynx to stomach. Peristalsis,food passes through diaphragm
What is peristalisis and where does it occur?
involuntary one way wave contraction of smooth muscle in wall of digestive tabel. Esophagus
What is the lower esophageal sphincter and location
circular m. prevents stomach acid from leaving stomach GERD
What is Peritonitis?
when infectious agents get into abdominal cavity cause damage to organs and death
What is peritontis caused by
surgery,puncture wounds,perorating ulcer
What are the four regions of the stomach?
cardia,fundus,body,pylorus
What is cardia in the stomach?
esophagus opens into this region
What is the fundus in the stomach?
most superior portion
What is the Pylorus in the stomach?
distal portion, contiguous with duodenum,ends pyloric sphincter
What are the three layers that line the stomach called?
rugae
what is rugae and what are they lined with?
microscopic folds,depression between folds called gastric pits. Lined with epithelial cells
What are the three types of gastric epithelial cells? and what do they produce
mucous,parietal:HCI,cheif cells:proteolytic enzymes
What is the location of the pyloric schincter?
end of stomach and beginning of small intestines
How long is the small intestine?
21 ft long
What are the 3 parts the small intestine is divided into and the lengths
Duodenum:1ft,jejunum:8,ileum:12
What organ are most of the nutrients absorbed in?
small intestine
What type of lining lines small intestine?
circular folds called pilcae-increase surface area
What are the microscopic folds called that line small intestine?
villi
What are the 5 components of the villus
epithelium,arteriole,capillary,venuole,lymph duct
Which organ is C shaped?
duodenum
The duodenum is how long? And location
1 foot. Mainly on right superior side
The duodenum recevies secretions from which two glands?
liver:bile.Pancrease:Bicarbonate and proteolytic enzymes
Where is the liver located?
upper right quadrant
How long is the jejunum?
8ft long
Where does the most digestion and absorption occur?
jejunum
what is the location of the jejunum?
superior and upper lect quadrant
How long is the ileum?
12 ft long
Where is the ileum located?
inferior and right quadrant
What organ empties into the cecum?
ileum
Which organ resorbs water and electrolytes back into blood?
Large intestine
Where is feces stored?
large intestine
Which organ absorbs certain vitamins?
large intestine
Cecum is part of which organ?
large intestine
What is Peritonitis?
when infectious agents get into abdominal cavity cause damage to organs and death
What is peritontis caused by
surgery,puncture wounds,perorating ulcer
What are the four regions of the stomach?
cardia,fundus,body,pylorus
What is cardia in the stomach?
esophagus opens into this region
What is the fundus in the stomach?
most superior portion
What is the Pylorus in the stomach?
distal portion, contiguous with duodenum,ends pyloric sphincter
What are the three layers that line the stomach called?
rugae
what is rugae and what are they lined with?
microscopic folds,depression between folds called gastric pits. Lined with epithelial cells
What are the three types of gastric epithelial cells? and what do they produce
mucous,parietal:HCI,cheif cells:proteolytic enzymes
What is the location of the pyloric schincter?
end of stomach and beginning of small intestines
How long is the small intestine?
21 ft long
What are the 3 parts the small intestine is divided into and the lengths
Duodenum:1ft,jejunum:8,ileum:12
What organ are most of the nutrients absorbed in?
small intestine
What type of lining lines small intestine?
circular folds called pilcae-increase surface area
What are the microscopic folds called that line small intestine?
villi
What 5 components make up the villus?
epithelium,arteriole,capillary,venuole,lymph duct
What organ is C shaped?
duodenum
How long is the duodenum?
1 foot long
What is the location of the duodenum?
mainly on right superior side
What two glands does the duodenum receive secretions from?
Liver:bile.Pancreas:bicabonate and proteolytic enzymes
Where is the liver located?
located in upper right quadrant
How long is the jejunum?
8ft long
In what organ does the most digestion and absorption occur?
jejunum
what is the location of the jejunum?
superior and upper left quadrant
How long is the ileum?
12 ft long
What is the location of the ileum?
inferior and right quadrant
What organ empties into the cecum?
ileum
Which organ resorbs water and electrolytes back into blood?
large intestine
What organ absorbs certain vitamins?
large intestine
which organ stores feces?
large intestine
What is the first part of the colon in large intestine?
cecum
What does the illeum empty into?
cecum
What is the location of the cecum?
lower right quadrant
What is attached to the inferior portion of the cecum?
appendix
What does the ascending colong run up? and what does it contact
runs up right side of ab. Contacts liver
Where does the hepatic flexure occur in large intestine?
ascending colon (right colic flexure)
Where does the transverse colon run along and what does it contact?
r to l side of ab contacts spleen
Where does the splenic flexure occur in large intestine?
transverse colon (left colic flexure
What does the descending colon run along?and contact?
runs down left side of ab and contacts illiac fossa
Where is the sigmoid colon located?
large intestine
How long is the sigmoid colon?
6 inches
The sigmoid colon is in contact with what organ?
ilium
Where does the sigmoid colon lead?
leads to rectum
Temporary storage of fecal material is held where?
rectum
Anal canal,anus,and two anal sphincters are components of what organ?
rectum
What are the four components of the urinary system?
kidneys,ureters,urinary bladder,urethra
Ureters connects what two organs?
kidney to urinary bladders
What is the function of the urinary bladder?
stores bladder
What is the function of the urethra?
drains urine from bladder
What are the two regions of the kidney?
cortex-outer and medulla-inner
Meduall segmented into functional units called what?
pyramids
What is the hollow funnel that collects urine from the pyramid?
minor calyx
How many minor calyx are there per pyramid?
one
What is the fusion of several minor calyses? and how many per kidney?
major clayx.2-4 major per kidney
What is the fusion of major calyses called?
renal pelvis
What is the opening to the ureter called?
renal pelvis
Basic structural and functional unit of the kidney is called?
the nephron
The filtration of blood and production of urine occurs where?
the nephron
A knot of capillaries in the nephron is called what?
glomerulus
The hollow chamber surrounding the glomerulus in the nephron is called what?
glomerular(bowman's)capsule
The glomerulus plus the glomerular capsule is called what?
renal corpuscle
Proximal convoluted tubule,loop of henle,distal concoluted tubule are componennts of what?
the nephron
Loop of Henle in the nephron is the only portion found in what?
medulla
Is the collecting duct part of the nephron?
no
Collects urine from distal convoluted tubules of many nephrons is called what?
collecting duct
Collecting duct opens at the tip of what?
tip of pyramid
Urine draints into what?
minor calyx
This organ drains urine from kidney to urinary bladder..
ureter
The ureter opens onto which wall of the bladder?
posterior
Production of sex cells
male reproductive system
delivery of sex cells to place of fertilization
male reproductive system
development of embryo/fetus
male reproductive system
Production of sperm happens in what"?
testes
Secretion of testosterone is in what male reporductive part?
testes
Pouch of skin with a thin muscular wall is called what?
scrotum
When do the testes first appear?
appear first seven weeks next to the kidneys
What is the age when the testes descend into the scrotum?
8 months of fetal age
Failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum prior to birth is called what?
cyptorchidism
The wall of scrotum is composed of what smooth muscle?
dartos
What skeletal muscle is attached tothe dermis?
cremaster m.
What male part controls the tempature of the testes?
scrotum
What is the tempature at which sperm develops?
35
Where is sperm developed?
testes
Testes are comprised of hollow tubing called what?
seminferous tubules
How many seminiferous tubules does each testis contain?
800 seminiferous tubules
Each testis contains about how much tubing?
one half mile
How long does sperm maturation take?
about 9 weeks
The head of the sperm contains what?
the nucleus
The middle piece and neck of sperm contain what?
large spiral mitochondrion
the tail of the sperm allows what kind of motion?
corkscrew motion to propel sperm
On the sperm, what is the membrane bound bag of enzymes covering the head called?
acrosome
Where does testosterone production occur?
in cells between seminferous tubule
Where is the epididymis located in comparison to the testes?
located on posterior/superior border of testes
What male part acts as a recycling center for damaged sperm?
epidiymis
How long can sperm be stored in the epidiymis?
2 months
The epididymis allows sperm to be fully fuctional, what is this called?
capacitation
How long is the Ductus vas Deferens?
16 in long
The ductus deferens begins at the end of which male organ?
epidiymis
What male organ ascends into the ab cavity by piercing the anterior muscles?
ductus vas deferens
What male productive organ courses around posterior surface of bladder?
ductus deferens
Which male organ goes into the prostate gland?
ductus vas deferens
Ducuts deferens wall is mostly what kind of muscle?
smooth-contraction propels sperm to utethra
Sperm+secretions=?
semen(ejaculate)
How many ml is the typical ejaculate and how many sperm?
2-5 ml
Seminal vesicles, what is its posterior surface?
urinary bladder
The seminal vesicle fuses with vas deferens to form which duct?
ejaculatory duct
Seminal vesicles contain large amounts of this...
fructose
The ejaculatory duct enters what gland?
prostate gland
The ejaculatory duct enters through what?
urethra
This gland contributes to approximately 25% of total semen volume
prostate gland
The prostatic portion of the urethra is in what gland?
prostate gland
the membranous portion of the urethra passes through what muscles to enter the penis?
pelvic muscles
The penile portion of the urethra courses the entire span of what?
penile shaft
The bulbourethral glands secretes into membranous urethra which produces what kind of mucous?
alkaline
The body (shaft)consists of three erectile tissure called what?
2 corpora cavernosa and 1 corpos spongiosum-urethra runs through
The opening of the urethra is called what?
external urethral meatus
What is the number one sex organ in females?
ovaries
How many eggs migrate into each ovary during trimester?
1 million
At puberty, how many eggs do you ovulate? and the number of days it takes to produce egg?
1 egg/28days
An egg plus surrounding cells is called what?
Follicle
Follicle cells produce what 2 components?
estrogen and progesterone
In follicle development, what day is the follicle recruited?
Day 1-first day of menses or first day of the females period
In follicle development, what day is 2 follicle?
Day 4
In follicle development, what day is 3 follicle(tertiary)
Day 8
In follicle development, what day does ovulation occur?
day 14
How long is the Oviduct?
5 inches long
The oviduct begins with finger like projections called what?
fimbriae
Fimbriae define the opening of the oviduct what is that called?
infundibulum
What type of epithelium is the oviduct lined with?
cilated
Where is the most common site of fertilization?
Oviduct
How many days does it take for the egg to reach the uterus?
about three days
What part of the female anatomy opens into the uterus?
Oviduct
Nutritional support and protection of the embryo/fetus is a function of what female organ?
Uterus
Expulsion of the fetus during labor occus where?
uterus
What female organ is the shape of an upside down pear?
Uterus
What are the layers of the uterine wall from outer to inner?
Perimetrium,Myometrium,Endometrium
This layer of the uterine wall is comprised of CT
Perimetrium
This layer of the Uterine Wall is smooth muscle,thickest layer,contractions expel fetus
Myometrium
This layer of Uterine wall has glands and vascular, shed every 28 days
Endometrium
What layer of the uterine wall is the site of implantation of fertilized egg?
Endometrium
Which region of the uterus is most superior?
Fundus
What is the major portion of the uterus called?
body
Which region of the uterus is the most inferior portion and projects into post. vagina?
Cervix
What region of the uterus possesses cervical canals?
cervix
What is the shallow recess around cervix but part of the vagina called?
Fornix
The area enclosing the external genitalia is called what?
external genitalia
What portion of the external genitalia contains lateral folds of skin,hair follicles,same structure as scrotum?
Labia majora
What part of the external genitalia meets superiorly to form mons pubis?
Labia majora
What is the raised area of skin above vulva because of adipose tissue called?
Mons pubis
In the external genitalia, What are the medial folds of skin,no hair follicles,highly vascular called?
Labia minora
What part of the external genitalia gives vulva pinkish appearance?
Labia minora
What part of the external genitalia meets superiorly to form foreskin of clitoris?
Labia minora
What is the skin fold surrounding and defining the opening of the vagina called?
Hymen
True or False-Does the clitoris incorporate urethra
False-Does not incorporate urethra
Mammary glands are divided into how many lobes?
12 lobes
Nipple surrounded by pigmented region of skin is called what?
areola
What type of ligaments connect underlying muscle with skin, provide support for mammary gland
Suspensory ligaments
Cleavage begins how long after post-fertilization?
12 hours
The zygote is divided into how many cells?
2 cells (mitosis)
46 chromosomes in zygote =
46 chromosomes in both daughter cells
2 cell into 4 cell stage of cleavage occurs when?
24-36 hours
4 cell into 8 cell stage occurs in how many hours in cleavage?
36-72 hours
In cleavage the 16 cell stage is called what?
Morula
The Morula develops in how many hours from fertilization?
72 hours
After 3 days in the oviduct, The morula enters what?
the uterus
Once entering the uterine cavity this can float freely
Morula
Once Morula begins to accumlate fluid and forms cavity it becomes what?
blastocyst
Blastocysts have what type of inner cavity?
fluid filled
What evolves from Morula on day 5?
Blastocyst
This will form the invading placenta
Trophoblasts
This will form the embryo
Inner cell mass cells
hCg stands for what?
human chorionic gonadotropin
hCg is produced by trophoblasts starting on what day?
6th day
Is hcG a hormone?
yes
This causes endometrium of uterus to grow and proliferate
hCg
This prevents the menstrual cycle from occuring
hCg
Erosion of maternal blood vessels,complete emersion into endometrium of uterus is what week?
week 2
What week is the development of CV and nervous system?
Weeks 3-4
What weeks will the embryo develop all structures that an adult has?
Weeks 5-8
When is the embryonic period?
Weeks 1-8
What begins on week 9 and goes until birth at 38 weeks?
Fetal period
What period is characterized by development of structures?
Embryonic period
What period is characterized by growth of structures?
Fetal period