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44 Cards in this Set

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Define Skeletal System
The organ system consisting of bones and related cartilages, as well as joints.
bones and cartilage
Define Osteology
The study of bones.
Define Arthrology
The study of joints (articulations).
Functions of skeletal system:
blood cell formation
Functions of skeletal system:

How does the skeletal system offer support?
Bones give form to the body and serve to support soft tissues.
Functions of skeletal system:

How does the skeletal system offer movement?
Bones serve as levers, and joints acts as fulcra, thus permitting motion.
levers and fulcra
Functions of skeletal system:

How does the skeletal system offer protection?
Bones form protecting structures for vital organs (the cranium for the brain, the rib cage for the heart and lungs; the vertebral column for the spinal cord; and the pelvis for the bladder and uterus)
Functions of skeletal system:

How does the skeletal system help with blood cell formation?
There is red marrow in the humerus, femur, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and skull that have hemopoietic tissues and produce red blood cells.
red marrow
Functions of skeletal system:

How does the skeletal system offer storage?
Bones are composed of calcium and phosphates and, through endocrine action, store or release materials (hormones to remove as needed).
Classification of bones based on shape:

flat bones
bones of the skull, ribs, and sternum
Classification of bones based on shape:

long bones
bones of the limbs (femur and humerous)

knobby ends and shaft
2 epiphysis and 1 diaphysis
Classification of bones based on shape:

short bones
bones are of equal length and width

bones of the wrist (carpals) and ankles (tarsals)
Classification of bones based on shape:

irregular bones
bones of varied shapes (bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles, vertebrae)
Classification of bones based on shape:

sesamoid bones
bones developing in tendons (patella)
Classification of bones based on structures:

cancellous bones (spongy bone)
a spongy, light, porous bone located centrally in the epiphysis of long bones and in flat bones

makes bones lighter
Classification of bones based on structures:

compact bone
-a dense, nonporous bone located peripherally in the diaphysis and epiphysis of long bones and in flat bones
- the bone is ivory-like in apperance
-it provides protection and support and helps bones resist the stress of weight placed on them
Bone cells:

osteoprogenitor cells
derived from?
mitotic potential?
differeniate into?
found in?
-derived from mesenchyme (undifferentiated mesoderm)
-have mitotic potential
-differentiate into osteoblasts
-found in the periosteum, endosteum, and canals in bone
Bone cells:

mitotic potential?
found in?
-no mitotic potential
-produces bone
-found in the periosteum and endosteum
Bone cells:

what kind of cells?
mitotic potential?
found in?
-mature bone cells
-no mitotic potential
-maintain bone (osteocytes revert to osteoblasts to repair bone)
-found encased in bone (canaliculi contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes which connect to similar extentions of nearby via gap junctions)
Bone cells:

what kind of cells?
arise from?
function in?
found in?
-bone degrading cells
-arise from monocytes
-function in bone degradation (release acids and proteolytic enzymes)
-found in the periosteum and endosteum
(elvate calcium or phosphate in blood stream, active in remodeling bone, hormone increase)
Define Marrow
defined as the connective tissue located within the center of a bone.
Define Yellow Marrow
a fat storing tissue located in the diaphysis of long bones
Define Red Marrow
associated with?
a hemopoietic tissue which consists of blood cells, macrophages, and fat cells and is located in the proximal ends of the humerous and femur, in short and flat bones, and the bodies of vertebraie (sternum and innominate)
Bone Membranes:

-tendon to periosteum to bone
-the membrane about the perimeter of a bone
-tendons and ligaments, through their fibers, attach to the periosteum
-in young individuals, the inner layer of the periosteum is osteogenic
What are the two layers of the periosteum?
fibrous layer: an outer dense layer of fibrous connective tissue

osteogenic layer (bone making): an inner layer of elastic tissue, some of whose white fibers, perforiating fibers, connect with the bone (osteogentic layer).
What are the functions of the periosteum?
*attaches tendon to bone
-provides a route for blood vessels and nerves to reach bone
-partipates in growth and repair of bone
Bone Membranes:

-the membrane lining the marrow cavity and the spaces of cancellous bone
-the endosteum has hemopoietic and osteogenic potential
Blood Supply to bones:

Periosteal Arteries
-arteries which arise from a network of vessels on the outer layer of the periosteum, they penetrate the bone through Volkmann canals (perforating canals), and supply compact and cancellous bones
-the blood vessels in Haversian canals arises from a periosteal artery
Blood Supply to bones:

Nutrient Arteries
-arteries which enter the shaft of long bones through a nutrient foramen, pass through the marrow cavity, and supply compact and cancellous bone
Chemical Composition of bone

-a bone is 2/3 inorganic matter, consisting of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and calcium hydroxide
Chemical Composition of bone

-a bone is 1/3, consisting of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, intercellular matrix, and collagen.
Chemical Composition of bone

-Collagen provides tensile strength to resist streching and twisting, and minerals prevent the bone from being compressed.
Chemical Composition of bone

new bone?
The matrix of bone is constantly broken down and replaced by a new matrix.
What is a simple fracture?
-closed fracture
-broken ends of bones do not penetrate skin
What is a compound fracture?
-open fracture
-broken ends of bone do penetrate skin
What is a comminuted fracture?
-bone is splintered into fragments at the break
What is a depressed fracture?
-broken bone is pushed inward
What is a impacted fracture?
-broken ends of bone are driven into eachother
What is a metastatic calcification?
-deposition of bone in tissue that normally do not calcify
-this occurs if blood calcium becomes too high due to an excess of PTH
-PTH is a bone dissolving horomone
What is a osteoporosis?
-where the rate of bone formation drops, while bone reabsorption is the same
-bone become fragile
-as levels of sex horomones diminish, the bone growth decreases
What is a osteomyelitis?
-an infection, by Staphylococcus aureus, of the periosteum, marrow cavity, and bone tissue
-bone tissue is destoyed
What is a osteomalacia?
-an adult disorder characterized by excessive withdrawal of calcium from bone
What is a rickets?
-a child disorder characterized b the withdrawal of calcium from bones
What are the neoplasms of the skeletal system?
-osteosarcoma (bone)
-fibrosarcoma (fibrous tissue)
-chondrosarcoma (cartilage)