Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/62

Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What system regulates long term processes?
Endocrine System
Endocrine's long term processes include what three processes?
Development, Groth, and Reproduction
The Endocrine system is regulated by ___ ___ , its goal is to preserve ______
negative feedback

homeostasis
secretory unites composed of epithelial cells
endocrine glands
release secretory products into the bloodstream for distribution
epithelial cells
Endocrine and Nervous system are similiar in that they both ____ ______
release chemicals
Nervous system releases _____ at a _____ very ____ to its _____
neurotransmitters, synapse, close, target
the action is fast but doesn't last long
Nervous System
Endocrine system releases _____ into ___ ___, ___ from its _____ cells. It relies on the ______ to distribute its secretions
hormones, extracellular fluid, far, target, bloodstream
the action is slower but lasts longer
Endocrine System
Nervous System and Endocrine system are linked through the what?
hypothalamus
Hormones: chemicals that
-are released from ___ ___
-are distributed by the ___
-___ the ___ at which the body performs an activity
endocrine organs
blood
change the rate
stable internal environment
homeostasis
during homeostasis, body systems must function within a ____ ____
failure to function within a (previous) results in ___ or ____
normal range

disease or death
To Maintain Homeostasis:
-it has ____ that sense a stimulus
-has a ___ ___ that receives and processes this info from (above)
-has _____ that resond to commands by (above)
receptors
control center
effectors
Negative Feedback:
-the ____ of the effector ____ the stimulus and ____ the situation
response
negates
corrects
Hypothalamus:
-as nervous tissue, ___ the ___
-as integrator, ____ ____ ____
-as endocrine organ, ____ the hormones ___ and ______
controls the ANS
secretes regulatory hormones
secretes ADH and ocytocin
major endocrine gland
pituitary gland
The ____ lobe of the pituitary gland is _____ and composed of ____ ____
anterior
glandular
epithelial cells
The ____ lobe of the pituitary gland is developed from ___ ___, part of the ___, and composed of ____ whose cells bodies are in the hypothalamus
posterior
nervous tissue
CNS
axons
The hypothalamus communicates with the anterior lobe by ____ and _____ hormones, they are taken up by special ___ ___ called a ___ ___ and realeased onto endocrine cells in the ____ ___
releasing and inhibiting
blood vessels
portal system
pituitary gland
A portal system is composed of two _____ ____ connected by a ____
capillary bodies
veins
Pituitary Portal System is composed of _____ in the hypothalamus and the anterior lobe connected by ___ ___ in the infundibulum(stalk)
capillaries

portal veins
PPS picks up hormones from the ______ and delivers them directly to the ___ ____
hypothalamus
pituitary gland
Releasing hormones _____ secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary
stimulate
Inhibiting hormones _____ secretion of hormones fomr the anterior pituitary
prevent
advantage of portal system:
secrete ___ ___ ___ of hormones into the first set of capillaries
-allows these hormones to ___ their ___ cells in the anterior pituitary
via the second set of capillaries very _____ without being ____ in the general circulation
very small amounts
reach their target
rapidly
without being diluted
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone
LH
luteinizing hormone
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone
PRL
prolactin
GH
growth hormone
stimulate follicle development in female ovaries and maturation of sperm in male testes
FSH (gonadotropins)
stimulate progesterone production in females and androgen production in males
LH (gonadotropins)
Gonadotropins (FSH and LH) are stimulated by ____ from the hypothalamus and regulate activities of the _____
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
gonads
stimulates the release of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex and stimulated by CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
ACTH
stimulates the release of thyroid hormones from thyroid gland
stimulated by TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
TSH
stimulates mammary gland development
PRL
sitmulates growth
GH
-hypothalamus secretes only ____ hormones for the FLAT hormones
-secretion is controlled by ___ ____
releasing
negative feedback
(PG)secretion is controlled by ____ and _____ hormones from the hypothalamus
realeasing
inhibiting
Posterior lobe releases two hormones that are _____ in nerve cell bodies located in the ______ and ____ from axon terminals in the ____ ____
synthesized
hypothalamus
released
posterior pituitary
Posterior Pituitary Hormones:
-restricts water loss from the kidneys and promotes thirst
-stimulates smooth muscle contractions in the mammary glands, uterus, and prostate
ADH
oxytocin
lies inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx and superficial to the trachea
Thyroid Gland
Thyroid gland is composed of _____ (hollow balls lined by epithelial cells) that synthesize the hormones ___ and ___
follicles

T3 and T4
Thyroid hormones _____ your ___ ___ ____
increase basal metabolic rate
Thyroid gland also contains C Cells that produce _____: causes a ____ in blood calcium
calcitonin
decrease
Parathyroid Glands' cells produce _____ _____: causes a ___ in blood calcium
parathyroid hormone
increase
Adrenal Glands:
subdivided into an outer ___ and inner ____
cortex
medulla
Adrenal Cortex: synthesizes (cortico)steroid hormones:
-______ for the kidneys which increase ___ and ____ retention
-_____ which ____ blood glucose
-__ ____ which stimulate onset of _____
mineralocorticoids:sodium and water
glucocorticoids:increase
sex steroids:puberty
Pancreas:
endocrine cells form clusters of cells called ___ ___ _____ or pancreatic islets
islets of Lanerhans
2 Major Types of Endocrine Cells in Pancreatic Islets:
___ ___-secreate ____ which ____ blood glucose
___ ___-secrete ____ which ____ blood glucose
alpha cells: glucagon, increase
beta cells: insulin, decrease
The heart begins as a ____ with only ___ chamber
tube
one
Org of the Cardiovascular System:
-___ circut-carries blood between the ____ and ____
-____ cirucit-carries blood between the ____ and ____
systemic: heart and body

pulmonary: heart and lungs
great veins and arteries are at the heart's ___.
pointed tip to the left is the ____.
surrounded by ____ ___
base
apex
pericardial sac
serous membrane that prevents friction between the heart and surrounding structures
pericardial sac
collects ____ O2 blood from the ____ via the ____ and ___ ___ ___ - ____ _____
low, body, superior and inferior vena cavae

right atrium
pumps ___ O2 blood to the ____ via the ___ and ____ ____ _____- ____ ____
low, lungs, right and left pulmonary arteries

right ventricle
collects ___ O2 blood from the ____ via the ___ and ____ ____ ____ - ___ ____
high, lungs, right and left pulmonary veins

left atrium
pumps ____ O2 blood to the ___ via the ____: ___ ____
high, body, aorta

left ventricle
the ___ ____ is larger than the right.
-its muscle is ____ and more _____
left ventricle
-thicker, powerful