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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three layers of fascia that envelop of muscle fiber.
epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
Broad flat tendons are called?
Aponeuroses
Describe the belly of a muscle.
the mass of fasciae-enveloped contractile fibers
Skeletal muscles are named according to what five things?
attachments, shape, number of heads, function, position
Describe the three types of levers.
1st class: muscle, joint, load
2nd class: joint, load, muscle
3rd class: joint, muscle, load
Explain the difference between origin and insertion.
origin: muscle attachment at the fixed bone
insertion: attachment at the moving bone
The primary muscle effecting a desired joint movement is called?
the prime mover or agonist
Muscles that potentially or actually oppose or resist a certain movement are called?
antagonist
What is the purpose of a fixator muscle?
to stabilize the more proximal joints during weightbearing functions of the more distal joints
The act of chewing is called?
mastication
The muscles of mastication are all innervated by what cranial nerve?
5th cranial nerve: trigeminal
The muscles of facial expression are all supplied by what cranial nerve?
7th cranial nerve: facial
The suprahyoid muscles all insert where? Purpose?
hyoid bone, the elevate the hyoid bone, influencing the movements of the floor of the mouth and the tongue
The infrahyoid bones all insert where? Purpose?
hyoid bone, these muscles partially resist elevation of the hyoid bone during swallowing
A covering muscle that operates with the sternocleidomastoid m. to both extend and rotate the neck and head.
splenius muscles
Name the three erector spinae m.
spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
Name the three oblique muscles of the transversospinalis group.
semispinalis, multifidu, rotatores
Give the three layers of muscle in the anterior abdominal wall starting with the most superficial.
external obliques, internal obliques, transversus abdominus
Starting from the most superficial, give the coverings of the spermatic cord.
superficial fascia, external spermatic fascia, crematic fascia, internal spermatic fascia, peritoneum
Name the four muscular parts of the levator ani muscle the helps make up the pelvic diaphragm (floor).
levator prostatae/vaginae
puborectalis
pubococcygeus
iliococcygeus
Name the five major contributors to the pevlic wall.
obturator internus
piriformis
sacroutberous ligament
sacrospinous ligament
tendinous arch
What muscles are used in retraction of the scapula?
trapezius, rhomboid major and minor
What muscles are used in protraction of the scapula?
serratus anterior
What muscles are used in elevation of the scapula?
trapezius, levator scapulae
What muscles are used in depression of the scapula?
trapezius
What muscles are used in upward rotation of the scapula?
serratus anterior, levator scapulae
Name the muscles of the rotator cuff.
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
Name the four flexors of elbow/radioulnar joints.
biceps brachii
brachialis
brachioradialis
pronator teres
Name the extensors of the elbow/radioulnar joints.
triceps brachii
anconeus
Name the supinators and pronators of the elbow/radioulnar joints.
supinators: supinator, biceps brachii
pronator: pronator teres, pronator quadratus
What muscles make up the thenar eminence?
opponens pollicis, abducor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis
What muscles make up the hypothenar eminence?
oppones digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis
What two muscles play the key roles in grasping an obj. between thumb and index finger?
adductor pollicis, first dorsal interosseous mus.
What muscles assist the fingers in adduction?
palmar interosseus
What muscles assist the fingers in abduction?
dorsal interosseus
Explain the functions of the gluteus maximus and glutues medius.
max: extends the hip joint during running and walking uphill
med: major abductor of the hip, stabilizer of pelvis when contralateral leg lifted off ground
What are the three muscles of the hamstrings?
semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris
What action do the hamstrings help achieve?
flexion of the knee joint, extension of the hip joint
What are the muscles of the medial thigh?
obturator externus, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, gracilis
The adductors insert where?
rough vertical line on the posterior of the femur called the linea aspera
What three muscles joint together to for and insertion called the pes anserinus?
gracilis, sartorius, semitendinosus
Where do the femoral vessels pass through the adductor magnuw?
at the adductor hiatus
The sartorius allows you to assume what position?
crossed-legs sitting posture
What are the four muscles of the quadriceps femoris and where do they all converge?
vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris
all converge to form the patellar tendon
What is the only extensor of the hip joint?
quadriceps femoris
What is the most powerful flexor of the hip?
iliopsoas
What muscle is particularly helpful in lifting the foot during the swing phose of walking?
tibialis anterior