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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Four main regions of the brain
brain stem
cerebellum
diencephalon
cerebrum
Brain stem
3 structures
medulla oblongata
pons
midbrain
medulla oblongata
-immediately superior to the spinal cord
-respiratory and cardiovascular control centers
pons (bridge)
-bulge that is superior to medulla oblongata / anterior to cerebellum
- respiratory centers to assist medulla oblongata
- relays info to diencephalon & cerebellum
midbrain
- superior to the pons
- consists of:
cerebral peduncles
corpora quadrigemina
cerebral peduncles
- directly superior to pons
- white fibers that connect the upper and lower brains
corpora quadrigemina
- two superior colliculi
(visual stimuli= eye, head & neck movements)
-two inferior colliculi
(auditory stimuli= head & trunk movements)
cerebellum
(little brain)
-inferior to cerebrum / posterior to medulla & pons
- two cerebellar hemispheres connected by the vermis
- sagittal section view:
white matter (arbor vitae)
surrounded by gray matter
(cerebellar cortex)
folia
- cerebellar cortex's pleated gyri (folds)
- increases the surface area for more neuron cell bodies
diencephalon
- brain's central area
- 3 regions:
thalamus
hypothalamus
epithalamus
thalamus
(inner chamber)
"grand central relay station"
- paired egg shaped bodies
- 1/2 in each cerebral hemisphere connected intermediate mass
hypothalamus
- below the thalamus
- important nuclei that control
pituitary, hormonal, autonomic function as well as
emotions, behavior, body temp, eating and drinking
infundibulum
stalk that connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus
mammillary bodies
- two small round bodies posterior to infundibulum
- relay for smell and taste reflexes
optic chisam
(chi= crossing over)
- anterior to the infundibulum
- area where the optic nerves cross
epithalamus
- "superior" and posterior to thalamus
- includes pineal gland which secrets hormone melatonin
cerebrum
- superior to and surrounds the diencephalon and parts of the brain stem
- largest & most complex division of the brain
- center of higher mental processes / interprets sensory input/ initiates skeletal muscle contractions
3 main regions of the cerebrum
cerebral cortex
white matter
basal ganglia
cerebral cortex
(cortex= bark)
- superficial gray matter composed of nerve cell bodies & dendrites
- integrates sensory info/
initiates motor output/
involved in emotions & intellectual processes
- AKA cortical area
- INSULA: area that lies deeper on the lateral sides
basal ganglia
(nuclei)
- areas of gray matter composed of paired nuclei
- found deep within each cerebral hemisphere
- controls automatic skeletal muscle movements & limbic system (emotional brain)
white matter
- deep to the outer cortex
- composed mainly of myelinated axons organized into fiber tracts
association fibers
fiber tracts that transmit nerve impulses
between the two hemispheres
commissural fibers
(connection)
fiber tracts that transmit nerve impulses
between the two hemispheres
projection fibers
ascending and descending fiber tracts that project nerve impulses
from inferior to superior brain areas or vice versa
corpus callosum
prominent commissural fiber tract that
connects the two hemispheres
fornix
tract of arched association fibers
internal capsule
large group of projection fibers