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79 Cards in this Set

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What is the study of Anatomy
The study of the structure / build of the human body
What is the study of Phyisology
The study of the functions of the body/ how the body works
Upon what principle is the study of anatomy and physiology based?
Structure reflects function, function reflects structure
Why do we undertake in anatomy and physiology simultaneously?
The two subjects are complementary, understanding one strengthens the other
What is nephrology
The study of kidney function
What is renal physiology
To filter, balance fluids and electrons
What is Systemic Anatomy
The study of the structure of the human body systems, and how they mutually interact.
What is Systemic Physiology
The interactions between the circulatory, repiratory, nervous, and skeletal systems.
What is neuroanatomy
The anatomy of the nervous system
What is neurophysiology
The study of nervous system function
WHat is cardiovascular physiology
The study of the circulatory system functions
What is cardiovascular anatomy
Heart, Arteries, veins, capillaries, and the blood.
What is developmental anatomy
The study of the human body changes from birth to death.
What is embryology
The study of human body structural changes prior to birth
What is the study of pathology
the study of human changes caused by disease states
What is homeostasis
Maintaning over all balance. Can fluctuate, but there is no net change
What is compartmentalization
Maintaining the internal enviornment seperate from the external enviornment. It is functional and physical
What is compartmentalization functional and physical
Because the function must be regulated, regardless of whether it is physical or functional.
What are the key characteristics to life
1. Maintainence of boundries 2.Movement 3Responsiveness
4. Digestion 5. Metabolism 6. Exretion 7. Reproduction 8 Growth 9 Survival needs, 10. Homeostasis
What is Metabolism
The sum of total chemical reactions occuring within the human body.
What is Metabolism all about?
Includes the buildup of nutrient build up and break down for use.
What is the objective of metabolism?
To ensure a continous supply of ATP
What is anabolism?
The build up of nutrient storage products during metabolism
What is Catabolism
The breakdown of anabolism to be used.
What is the Dorsal Body Cavity divided into
Cranial and Vertebral cavities.
What does the dorsal body cavity protect
The central nervous system
What does the cranial cavity encase?
The brain
What does the vertebral cavity encase
the spinal cord
What does the ventral body cavity contain?
Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
What is the thoracic cavity?
Pleural ( lungs )and Pericardial ( heart) cavities
What does the abdominopelvic cavity contain
Below the diaphragm-- stomach, intestines, sex organs, etc.
Where is the thoracic cavity located
In the ventral body cavity, above the diaphraghm
Where is the abdominicopelvic cavity located?
In the ventral body cavity, below the diaphraghm
What are the otic body cavities?
Inner ear
What re the optic body davities?
Orbital cavities ( vision)
What is the term assosiated with serousus membranes that cover organs
Visceral...
What is the term assosiated with serousus membranes that line cavities
Parietal...
What is the meaning of efferent
Motor Nerve-- a nerve that conveys impulses toward or to muscles or glands
What is the meaning of Afferent
sensory nerve: a nerve that passes impulses from receptors toward or to the central nervous system
What is a servo system?
A feedback system, designed to help the body maintain homeostasis
What are the planes of the body?
Sagittal, Frontal, and Transverse
What does the transverse section
Top and botom
What does the mid-saggital section
Right and left
What does the frontal/coronal section
Front and back
What membrane covers the heart
Visceral Pericardium
What membrane covers the lungs
Visceral Pleura
What membrane covers the organs
Visceral peritoneum
What membrane lines the heart
Parietal Pericardium
What membrane lines the lungs
Parietal Pleura
What membrane lines the abdominal cavity
Parietal Peritoneum
What is the difference between parietal and visceral
visceral covers, parietal lines.
What is Histology
The study of tissue
What is a tissue
A group of associated similar and dissimilar cells related in structure performing a common function
What is Cytology
The study of cells
What are the four fundamental tissue types
Epithelium, Connective Tissue, Muscle, and Nerve
What is the anatomy of Epithelim
Covers surfaces and lines cavities
What are the functions of Epithelium
Protection, excretion, absorption, secretion, filtration, and sensory reception.
How are epithelial tissue classified?
Simple Squamous Epithelium, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Simple columnar epithelium pseudostratified epithelium, simple cilliated columna epithelium, stratified squamous epithlium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, stratified columnar epithelium, transitional epithelim, Glandular epithelium
What do Simple Squamous Epithelim look like? Where are they found
Typically found lining cavities, including blood vessels, and covering surfaces. The individual cells appear flattened and the nucleus is disc like. Each cell is attached to a basal membrane.
What do Simple Cuboidal lEpithelim look like? Where are they found
1 cell layer thick, and are cube shaped.

Used to form gland duts, tubuels, and kidney tubles.

Think CANDY CORN
What do Simple Columnar lEpithelim look like? Where are they found
1 cell layer thick, cells are column or cylinder shaped. This type of cells line the digestive tract, gall blater, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
What do Pseudostratified Epithelium cells look like? Where are they found?
A single layer of cells that appear to be multiple layers. Found in areas where absorption and filtration occur, such as the trachea.
What do Simple Ciliated Columnar Epithelium cells look like? Where are they found?
Found in the lining of the uterine, bronchioles,. Characterestid by cillia on the apical surface.
What do Stratified SquamousEpithelium cells look like? Where are they found?
Most abundant type. Found all over skin and in every opeining.
What type of glands have ducts
Exocrine...secrete right into blood
What type of glands do not have ducts
Endocrine, so they can excrete hormones
What are the four types of connective tissue
Connective tissue proper, cartilage, cone, and blood.
Function of Connective tissue proper
Loose material that serves as packing material between other tissue, small blood vessels, and nerves. Surrounds glands, and serves as a cushion.
Function of Cartilage
midway dense connective tissue and bone. Tough, yet flexible. Consists of different types
Function of bone
Provide support/protection to delicate organs. Bone is abundant with collagen.
Blood
Made up of erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and thrombocytes.
What are the three types of cartilage
Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage
A&P of Hyaline cartilage
Blue apperance . Provides spongy pads within joints, nose, larynx. Provides supporting rings of trachea Less fiber, more poly saccharide..
A&P of Elastic cartilage
Almost identical to hyaline, but with more elastin. Found in external auditory meatus and epiglottis

Equal in fiber and polysaccaride
A&P of Fibrocartilage
Found where hyaline cartilage meets tendon or ligaments. HIgh in fiber, low in poly saccharide.
What are Osteoblasts?
Juvenile bone cells thta produce collagen fibers
What are osteocytes
Mature bone cells, reside with lacunae
What are osteoclasts
bone remolding cells.
What are the four types of muscle tissues
Muscle, Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth