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298 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The percentage of blood volume occupied by erythrocytes is called the ________.
Hematocrit
Which of the following is not a role of albumin?
It serves an immune system function
Which of the following is a characteristic of a mature erythrocyte?
It has a biconcave disc shape
One molecule of hemoglobin can bind a maximum of _____ oxygen molecules.
Four
Erythropoiesis is best defined as:
red blood cell production
Erythropoietin is made primarily by the:
Kidneys
Aging red blood cells are fragmented and trapped in the:
Spleen
A patient who lacks intrinsic factor would likely develop:
pernicious anemia
The migration of white blood cells out of the capillary blood vessels is called:
diapedesis
The most numerous type of white blood cell is?
Neutrophil
Highly phagocytic cell with a "U" shaped nucleus?
Macrophage
Bilobed nucleus and dark-staining cytoplasmic granules?
Basophil
Small agranulocyte that can live for years?
Lymphocyte
Has a role in killing parasitic worms
Eosinophil
What is considered a lymphocyte?
B cell
Overproduction of white blood cells is called:
leukopoiesis
Platelets are derived from:
megakaryocytes
What is the correct sequence of hemostasis from start to end?
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation and then coagulation
What is true regarding the extrinsic pathway of blood clotting?
The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor.
Inhibits coagulation
Heparin
Converts fibrinogen to fibrin
Thrombin
Generates thrombin
Prothrombin activator
Fibrin-digesting enzyme
Plasmin
Stimulates blood vessel healing
Platelet-derived growth factor
A free-floating blood clot is called a?
embolus
Blood type is determined by:
glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes.
This disease can develop when an Rh- woman is pregnant with an Rh+ baby.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
Would make antibodies to the A agglutinogen but not the B agglutinogen
Person with type B blood
Would make antibodies to the B agglutinogen but not the A agglutinogen
Person with type A blood
Would have type A and B agglutinogens
Person with type AB blood
Would make antibodies to the A and B agglutinogens
Person with type O blood
What is a true statement about fetal hemoglobin.
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin.
The percentage of blood volume occupied by erythrocytes is called the ________.
hematocrit
What are some roles of albumin?
Albumin is the primary protein found in plasma. It constitutes about 60% of plasma protein. It has a significant role in regulating plasma osmotic pressure. It also acts as a carrier protein and a blood buffer.
What is a characteristic of a mature erythrocyte?
It has a biconcave disc shape.
One molecule of hemoglobin can bind a maximum of _____ oxygen molecules.
Four
Erythropoiesis is best defined as:
red blood cell production
Erythropoietin is made primarily by the:
Kidneys
Aging red blood cells are fragmented and trapped in the:
Spleen
A patient who lacks intrinsic factor would likely develop:
pernicious anemia.
The migration of white blood cells out of the capillary blood vessels is called:
diapedesis
Overproduction of white blood cells is called:
leukocytosis
Blood type is determined by:
Blood type is determined by glycoproteins (agglutinogens) present on the surface of erythrocytes.
Each hemoglobin molecule has ______ polypeptide chains: two alpha chains and two beta chains.
Four
Eosinophils are _________ that fight parasitic infection or allergic reaction.
leukocytes
Hemoglobin serves to transport oxygen and ___________.
Carbon dioxide
___________ contains water, proteins, nutrient molecules, and hormones.
Plasma
__________ are sometimes found in circulating blood and are filled with hemoglobin and some ribosomes.
Reticulocytes
The _________ in centrifuged blood contains leukocytes and platelets.
Buffy coat
The RBC count in both ______ is between 5.1 and 5.8 million per microliter of blood.
men
B-complex vitamins are essential for the synthesis of ______.
RBC
When oxygen is bound to hemoglobin it becomes ____________.
oxyhemoglobin
One of the ________ functions of blood is to maintain normal temperatures in body tissues.
regulatory
The most abundant component of plasma is _________.
Water
_____________ of blood include erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
Formed elements
___________ is the protein that makes red blood cells red.
Hemoglobin
Blood cell formation is referred to as __________.
hemopoiesis (or hematopoiesis).
Dissolved proteins are an important part of ____________.
blood clotting
________ is important in the regulation of the body's pH.
Blood
A healthy adult male has approximately ___ liters of blood.
5-6
A major plasma protein that maintains the blood osmotic pressure is:
albumin
Diapedesis refers to:
passage of white blood cells through intact vessel walls into tissues.
Granulocytes include:
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils
Mature red blood cells in the circulating blood are filled with:
hemoglobin molecules.
Pernicious anemia may result from:
the lack of vitamin B12 in diet or deficiency of intrinsic factor needed to absorb B12.
The final step in clot formation is:
Coagulation or blood clotting
The most numerous leukocyte is the:
Neutrophils
The terms biconcave and anucleated apply to:
red blood cells.
Which leukocyte contains histamine in its granules?
Basophils
What is a protective function of blood?
Preventing infection
What is the life span of platelets?
5-10 days
What property do white blood cells have in common?
WBCs are nucleated and have a protective function.
Individuals with malaria have a better chance of surviving if they have which type of anemia?
sickle-cell anemia
What types of white blood cells kills parasitic worms, destroys antibody complexes, and inactivates some inflammatory chemicals of allergy?
Eosinophils
What is a function of neutrophils?
Phagocytize bacteria
What is a function of erythrocytes?
Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
What is a function of basophils?
Release histamine during allergic reaction
What is a function of lymphocytes?
Destruction of virus-containing cells
The percentage of total volume used to determine the number of erythrocytes in a blood sample is referred to as the:
hematocrit
The buffy coat that appears after a sample of blood has been centrifuged contains:
WBC
What has the greatest effect on making RBCs very efficient oxygen transporters?
They generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms and do not consume any of the oxygen they carry.
Another term for reduced hemoglobin is:
deoxyhemoglobin
____________ is an illustration of iron deficiency seen in individuals who have expanded their blood by increased activity.
Athlete's anemia
The process of actively metabolizing oxygen to produce bleach and hydrogen to kill bacteria is known as:
Respiratory burst
What is responsible for limiting a platelet plug to the immediate area of damage?
Prostacyclin
Erythroblastosis fetalis is caused by:
Rh incompatibility between an Rh-negative mother and her Rh-positive baby during pregnancy would cause erythroblastosis fetalis
What plasma expanders would be associated with the least complications?
Ringer's solution
Eighty-five percent of Americans carry the ______ Rh agglutinogen on their RBCs.
D
Which antibodies would be found in the serum of a person with AB blood?
A person with AB blood has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies.
Differentiate into macrophages:
Monocyte
Form a temporary plug at the site of bleeding
Platelets
Increase in number significantly during bacterial infections
Neutrophils
Play a critical role in immunity
Lymphocyte
Contain the anticoagulant heparin granules
Basophils
Have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
Type O
Have both antigens A and B
Type AB
Have only anti-A antibody
Type B
Have the antigen A
Type A
Match each of the following functions of blood with the correct example.

Distribution
Delivering oxygen from the lungs
Match each of the following functions of blood with the correct example.

Regulation
Maintaining appropriate body temperature
Match each of the following functions of blood with the correct example.

Protection
Preventing infection
Match each component of plasma with its description and/or importance.

Water
Ninety percent of plasma volume; dissolving and suspending medium for solutes of blood
Match each component of plasma with its description and/or importance.

Albumin
Produced by liver; exerts osmotic pressure to maintain water balance between blood and tissues
Match each component of plasma with its description and/or importance.

Globulins
Involved in transport of lipids; involved in immune response
Match each component of plasma with its description and/or importance.

Non-protein nitrogenous substances
Byproducts of cellular metabolism (urea, uric acid)
Match each component of plasma with its description and/or importance.

Electrolytes
Sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, sulfate
Match the following disorders with the appropriate descriptions.

Porphyria
Caused by defective synthesis of heme groups and production of nonfunctional hemoglobin molecules
Match the following disorders with the appropriate descriptions.

Hemorrhagic anemias
Result from bleeding
Match the following disorders with the appropriate descriptions.

Aplastic anemia
Results from destruction or inhibition of the red marrow by certain bacterial toxins, drugs, and ionizing radiation
Match the following disorders with the appropriate descriptions.

Iron-deficiency anemia
Can result from inadequate intake of iron-containing foods and impaired iron absorption
Match the following disorders with the appropriate descriptions

Sickle-cell anemia
Caused by abnormal hemoglobin from a change in DNA, resulting in a change in one of the 287 amino acids
Match the following types of blood cell formed elements with the appropriate descriptions.

Neutrophils
The most numerous of white blood cells; stain pale lilac since the very fine granules take up both acid and basic stains
Match the following types of blood cell formed elements with the appropriate descriptions.

Eosinophils
Their deep red nucleus has two lobes connected by a broad band of nuclear material; large, coarse granules stain red with acid dyes
Match the following types of blood cell formed elements with the appropriate descriptions.

Basophils
Their cytoplasm contains large, coarse granules that stain purplish-black from basic dyes.
Match the following types of blood cell formed elements with the appropriate descriptions.

Agranulocytes
Their cytoplasm lacks visible cytoplasmic granules.
Match the following types of blood cell formed elements with the appropriate descriptions.

Platelets
Not complete cells, but fragments of cells; very small compared to other cellular components
Match the following components of the clotting mechanism with the appropriate functions.

Von Willebrand factor (VWF)
Assist platelets to adhere to the collagen fibers
Match the following components of the clotting mechanism with the appropriate functions.

Tissue factor (TFIII), or tissue thromboplastin
Triggers the "shortcut" extrinsic mechanism that bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway
Match the following components of the clotting mechanism with the appropriate functions.

Prothrombin
Inactive form of thrombin
Match the following components of the clotting mechanism with the appropriate functions.

Thrombin
Catalyzes conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin strands
Match the following components of the clotting mechanism with the appropriate functions.

Serum
Plasma minus the clotting proteins
Match each of the following parts of separated blood with its definition.

Buffy coat
Thin white colored area in centrifuged blood that contains WBC and platelets
Match each of the following parts of separated blood with its definition.

Hematocrit
Erythrocyte portion of centrifuged blood
Match each of the following parts of separated blood with its definition.

Plasma
The liquid portion of centrifuged blood that sits atop everything else
Drinking alcoholic beverages _________ urine output because it causes increased activity by ADH.
increases
FSH and LH cause the maturation of the ______ and ______.
sperm and oocytes.
Sympathetic nerve stimulation causes the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the ____________.
adrenal medulla
The destruction of beta cells of the pancreas is an autoimmune condition characteristic of ___________.
type I diabetes
The hormones of the _____ gland are essential in the formation of immune cells.
thymus
The _______ is considered both an endocrine and an exocrine gland.
pancreas
The secretion of _________ follows a night-day cycle, becoming high at night and low during daylight.
melatonin
The skin, the heart, and the kidneys contain cells or tissues that produce _________.
hormones
The synthesis and release of most hormones are regulated by a _________-feedback system.
negative
The target tissues for________ are the smooth muscle cells of the uterus and the myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands.
oxytocin
________ are chemical substances secreted into the extracellular fluids
Hormones
Most hormones can be classified chemically as either ______ or _____.
amino-acid based or steroids
Hormones are "long-distance" chemical signals that travel in blood or ______ throughout the body.
lymph
__________ are released into the extracellular fluid and affect only adjacent cells in the same tissue.
Local hormones
Hormones that are derived from cholesterol are called _______.
steroids
Hormones may communicate with their ___________ by binding to an extracellular receptor.
target cells
________ hormones may communicate with their target cells by direct gene activation.
Steroid
A hormone will affect only its _______ cells.
target
The hypothalamus regulates activity of the _______ gland.
pituitary
Thymic hormones are involved in _________.
immunity
A hormone that exhibits _________ will increase the action of another hormone.
synergism
What is NOT a major endocrine organ, but produces hormones in addition to its major function?
Kidneys
Steroid hormones influence cellular activities by:
entering the cell and forming a DNA/hormone complex before they change cellular function.
Sympathetic nerve stimuli are responsible for the release of:
epinephrine
The chemical classification of hormones is either _____ or _____.
amino acid-based hormones or steroids.
The metabolic rate of most body tissues is controlled directly by:
Thyroid hormones
The secretion of parathyroid hormone is a good example of:
humoral stimuli.
The stimulus for producing insulin is:
high blood glucose concentration.
The transcription of new messenger RNA is a function of:
steroid hormones.
Which of the following elements is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone?
Iodine
The hypophyseal portal system transports releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus to the:
anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis).
Which signals would affect local cells by releasing chemicals into the extracellular fluid?
Paracrine signals
Which of the following is the property in which a hormone CANNOT exhibit its full effect without another hormone?
Permissiveness
What is NOT a true hormone, but, rather, a trophic substance?
stimulating hormone
Which organs is considered a neuroendocrine organ?
Hypothalamus
Eicosanoids are not true hormones because they:
they act locally, not on distal organs as do true hormones.
How do protein kinases affect enzymes?
They add a phosphate group (phosphorylation) to the enzyme.
The "hormone response element" is located on the cell:
DNA
The binding of a hormone to its "hormone response element" would lead to the:
transcription of the DNA for the gene that is "turned on" by this event.
Water-soluble hormones exhibit the shortest:
half-life
The normal endocrine controls can be directly overridden by the _________ system.
nervous
POMC is a prohormone for:
ACTH
Excess growth hormone would cause ______.
Gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults.
Iodination of thyroid hormones is mediated by:
peroxidase enzymes.
A congenital condition that includes mental retardation, short disproportional body size, and a thick tongue and neck is caused by:
deficiency of thyroxin.
Osteitis fibrosa cystica is caused by:
an increase in the parathyroid hormone.
Insulin does mot enhances the membrane transport of glucose in the ______.
Brain
Resistin, an insulin antagonist, is a hormone produced by the:
adipose tissue.
What hormone does the skin produce?
Cholecalciferol
Somatostatin is considered paracrine because it acts on:
cells other than those that secrete it.
Match the following five endocrine glands with their secretions.

Neurohypophysis
ADH
Match the following five endocrine glands with their secretions.

Thyroid gland
Calcitonin
Match the following five endocrine glands with their secretions.

Adrenal gland
Aldosterone
Match the following five endocrine glands with their secretions.

Pineal gland
Melatonin
Match the following five endocrine glands with their secretions.

Adenohypophysis
TSH
Match the following five hormones with their functions.

FSH
Stimulates development of the follicle in the ovaries
Match the following five hormones with their functions.

GH
Mobilizes fats, spares glucose, and promotes the protein synthesis necessary for growth
Match the following five hormones with their functions.

ACTH
Stimulates the adrenal cortex
Match the following five hormones with their functions.

TSH
Stimulates the thyroid gland
Match the following five hormones with their functions.

ADH
Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb water from urine
Match each of the following hormones with the condition that would be balanced by that hormone.

Insulin
High levels of blood sugar
Match each of the following hormones with the condition that would be balanced by that hormone.

ADH
Loss of body fluids
Match each of the following hormones with the condition that would be balanced by that hormone.

Aldosterone
Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
Match each of the following hormones with the condition that would be balanced by that hormone.

Thyroxine
Decrease in body metabolism
Match each of the following hormones with the condition that would be balanced by that hormone.

Parathyroid hormone
Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Stimulates the production of thyroxine
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Stimulates the production of thyroxine
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Growth hormone
Causes cells to undergo mitosis and increase in size
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Oxytocin
Increases contractions of uterine smooth muscle
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Causes the adrenal cortex to produce hormones
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Follicle-stimulating hormone
Affects functions of the ovaries and testes
Match the following hormones with the site of their release and their function.

TSH
Released from anterior pituitary; causes thyroid gland to synthesize thyroxine
Match the following hormones with the site of their release and their function.

FSH
Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovarian follicles to grow and produce estrogen and spermatogenesis in the testes
Match the following hormones with the site of their release and their function.

LH
Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovulation and interstitial cells to produce testosterone in the testes
Match the following hormones with the site of their release and their function.

Oxytocin
Released from posterior pituitary; causes uterine contractions
Match the following hormones with the site of their release and their function.

ADH
Released from posterior pituitary; causes kidneys to conserve water
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Prolactin
Stimulates milk production
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Oxytocin
Stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Thyroxine
Increases metabolic rate
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Calcitonin
Lowers blood Ca2+ levels
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Parathyroid hormone
Raises blood Ca2+ levels
Match the following hormones with the gland (or organ) that produces them.

Calcitonin
Thyroid gland
Match the following hormones with the gland (or organ) that produces them.

Adrenocorticotropic hormones
Pituitary gland
Match the following hormones with the gland (or organ) that produces them.

Glucocorticoids
Adrenal cortex
Match the following hormones with the gland (or organ) that produces them.

Epinephrine
Adrenal medulla
Match the following hormones with the gland (or organ) that produces them.

Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid glands
Match the structures with the hormones they produce.

Pineal gland
Melatonin
Match the structures with the hormones they produce.

Testes
Testosterone
Match the structures with the hormones they produce.

Thymus
Thymosin
Match the structures with the hormones they produce.

Heart
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Match the structures with the hormones they produce.

Placenta
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Melatonin
Associated with drowsiness at night
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Testosterone
Associated with sexual maturity in males; needed for normal sperm production
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Thymosin
Essential for normal immune response
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Atrial natriuretic peptide
Reduces blood volume, blood pressure, and blood sodium concentration by signaling the kidneys
Match the following hormones with their functions.

HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
Helps to sustain pregnancy
Match the following tissues with the hormones they produce.

Adipose tissue
Leptin
Match the following tissues with the hormones they produce.

Skin
Cholecalciferol
Match the following tissues with the hormones they produce.

Kidney
Erythropoietin
Match the following tissues with the hormones they produce.

Stomach
CholecystokininGastrin
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Leptin
Binds to CNS neurons concerned with appetite control
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Cholecalciferol
Activated by the kidneys to Vitamin D; stimulates active absorption of Ca2+ by intestinal cells
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Gastrin
Stimulates the stomach to release hydrochloric acid
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Erythropoietin
Stimulates the production of red blood cells
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Cholecystokinin
Stimulates the release of bile
Match the following hormones with the organ that produces them.

Glucagon
Pancreas
Match the following hormones with the organ that produces them.

TSH
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
Match the following hormones with the organ that produces them.

Thyroxine
Thyroid gland
Match the following hormones with the organ that produces them.

Renin
Kidneys
Match the following hormones with the organ that produces them.

ADH
Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

Glucagon
Increases the blood sugar level by stimulating the liver
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

TSH
Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

Thyroxine
Increases the metabolic rate
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

Erythropoietin
Increases red blood cell production
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

ADH
Increases water reabsorption in kidney tubules
Match the following hormones with the appropriate category of hormones.

FSH and LH
Gonadotropins
Match the following hormones with the appropriate category of hormones.

Cortisol
Glucocorticoids
Match the following hormones with the appropriate category of hormones.

Androgens
Gonadocorticoids
Match the following hormones with the appropriate category of hormones.

Aldosterone
Mineralocorticoids
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Gonadotropins
Regulate functions of gonads in both sexes
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Glucocorticoids
Increase blood levels of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids during stress
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Androgens
Produce masculinizing effects when produced in large quantities
Match the following hormones with their functions.

Mineralocorticoids
Regulate Na+ reabsorption by the kidneys and thereby regulates other electrolyte levels
Match the following gland with the hormone it produces (or releases).

Posterior pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone
Match the following gland with the hormone it produces (or releases).

Anterior pituitary
Growth hormone
Match the following gland with the hormone it produces (or releases).

Pancreas
Insulin
Match the following gland with the hormone it produces (or releases).

Adrenal cortex
Aldosterone
Match the following gland with the hormone it produces (or releases).

Adrenal medulla
Epinephrine
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

Antidiuretic hormone
Causes kidneys to conserve water
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

Growth hormone
Stimulates embryonic cells (stem cells) to undergo mitosis
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

Insulin
Facilitates glucose transport into cells
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

Aldosterone
Increases Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys
Match each of the following hormones with its function.

Epinephrine
Increases cell reactions during sympathetic response
Given the homeostatic imbalance, indicate the hormone that would help to restore the balance.

Lowered levels of Ca2+ in the blood
Parathyroid hormone
Given the homeostatic imbalance, indicate the hormone that would help to restore the balance.

Too much Ca2+ in the blood
Calcitonin
Given the homeostatic imbalance, indicate the hormone that would help to restore the balance.

Elevated levels of blood sugar
Insulin
Given the homeostatic imbalance, indicate the hormone that would help to restore the balance.

Decreased levels of blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
Glucagon
Given the homeostatic imbalance, indicate the hormone that would help to restore the balance.

Excessive loss of Na+ in extracellular fluids
Aldosterone
Indicate the appropriate gland that would produce the hormone needed to restore homeostasis for each of the following conditions.

The end of a nine month pregnancy
Posterior pituitary
Indicate the appropriate gland that would produce the hormone needed to restore homeostasis for each of the following conditions.

Loss of Na+ from profuse sweating
Adrenal cortex
Indicate the appropriate gland that would produce the hormone needed to restore homeostasis for each of the following conditions.

High blood sugar due to eating too many sweets
Pancreas
Indicate the appropriate gland that would produce the hormone needed to restore homeostasis for each of the following conditions.

Drop in blood levels of Ca2+ due to extreme inactivity
Parathyroid gland
Indicate the appropriate gland that would produce the hormone needed to restore homeostasis for each of the following conditions.

Delayed or stunted growth
Anterior pituitary
Match each of the following homeostatic imbalances with the hormone deficiency (or overproduction).

Gigantism
Overproduction of GH
Match each of the following homeostatic imbalances with the hormone deficiency (or overproduction).

Diabetes mellitus
Insulin deficiency
Match each of the following homeostatic imbalances with the hormone deficiency (or overproduction).

Sympathetic nervous system overactivity
Oversecretion of catecholamines
Match each of the following homeostatic imbalances with the hormone deficiency (or overproduction).

Grave's disease
Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Match each of the following homeostatic imbalances with the hormone deficiency (or overproduction).

Diabetes insipidus
Hyposecretion of ADH
Match each of the following cell regions with the principle hormone produced.

Zona reticularis
Mineralocorticoids
Match each of the following cell regions with the principle hormone produced.

Zona glomerulosa
Mineralocorticoids
Match each of the following cell regions with the principle hormone produced.

Zona fasciculate
Glucocorticoids
Match each of the following cell regions with the principle hormone produced.

Beta cells
Insulin
Match each of the following cell regions with the principle hormone produced.

Alpha cells
Glucagon
Match each of the following control mechanisms with its description.

Humoral
Monitoring blood levels of substances and correct them
Match each of the following control mechanisms with its description.

Hormonal
Hormone release is dependent upon other hormone levels
Match each of the following control mechanisms with its description.

Neural
Axons cause hormone release
Endocrinology involves the study of the endocrine organs and ______________.
hormones
What is not an endocrine gland?
Adenoid gland
_______ are long-distance chemical signals that travel in blood or lymph throughout the body.
Hormones
Steroids are synthesized from:
cholesterol
Any given hormone will influence the activity of ___________.
its target cells
In which of the following mechanisms of hormone action do intracellular calcium ions act as a final mediator?
PIP2-calcium signaling mechanism
__________ involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.
Down-regulation
When one hormone opposes the action of another hormone, the interaction is called _____.
antagonism
What occurs within a negative feedback system?
Some internal or external stimulus triggers hormone secretion. As hormone levels rise, they cause target organ effects, which then inhibit further hormone release.
What is not one of the three major types of stimuli to trigger endocrine glands to manufacture and release their hormones?
endocrinal stimuli
What stimulates most body cells to increase in size and divide?
Growth hormone
What homeostatic imbalances results from hyposecretion of growth hormone?
Pituitary dwarfism
What hormones stimulates gamete (sperm or egg) production?
Follicle-stimulating hormone
As blood levels of ___________ rise, the expulsive contractions of labor gain momentum and finally end in birth.
oxytocin
What is not an area in which thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role?
Helping the body avoid dehydration and water overload
The cells found within the parathyroid gland that secrete parathyroid hormone are called _______.
chief cells
What condition, if left untreated, progresses to respiratory paralysis and death?
Hypoparathyroidism
What homeostatic imbalances usually results from deficits in both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids?
Addison's disease