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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bone
made of cartilage, dense connective tissue, epithelium, adipose, nervous and osseous tissue
osteology
study of bone structure and the treatment of bone disorders
function of the skeletal system
support
protection
assistance in movement
mineral homeostasis
blood cell production
triglyceride storage
long bone
a bone with greater length than width
diaphysis
bone's shaft or body
epiphyses
proximal & distal ends of the long bone
metaphyses
region in a mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis includes
epiphyseal plate in a growing bone
epiphyseal line in a mature bone
articular cartilage
thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation (joint) with another bone
periosteum
sheath of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the bone surface wherever it is not covered by articular cartilage
medullary cavity
space within the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults
(aka marrow cavity)
endosteum
thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity
composition of bone or osseous tissue
widely spaced cells
abundant extracellular matrix which is:
25% water
25% collagen fibers
50% crystallized mineral salts (hydroxyapatite)
4 types of bone tissue cells
osteogenic
osteoblast
osteocyte
osteoclast
osteogenic cells
unspecialized stem cells derived from mesenchyme
only bone cells that divide
found along inner periosteum, inner endosteum and blood vessels canals
osteoblasts
blasts that do not divide
secrete collagen fibers
initiate calcification
trapped in their secretions, they become osteocytes
osteocytes
mature bone cells
maintain daily metabolism
do not divide
osteoclasts
huge cells from the fusion of ^50 monocytes
(type of white blood cell)
release lysosomal enzymes and acids
to facilitate resorption
resorption
breakdown of bone extracellular matrix, part of
normal development, maintenance and repair of bone and
to help regulate blood calcium level
compact bone tissue
protection and support
resists the stresses produced by weight and movement
perforating or Volkmann's
canals
transverse openings that allow nerves, blood & lymph vessels to connect with those of the medullary cavity, periosteum and central or haversian canals
central or haversian canals
canal that runs longitudinally through the bone
surrounded by concentric lamellae
concentric lamellae
rings of calcified extracellular much like the rings of a tree trunk
lacunae
"little lakes"
in bone tissue they are found between the lamellae and contain osteocytes
of the osteocyte
canaliculi
small channels filled with extracellular fluid and
fingerlike projections of the osteocyte
they radiate in all directions from the lacunae
neighboring osteovytes communicate via gap junctions forming an intricate system of canals
osteon or
haversian system
repeating units of a central canal with its concntrically arranged lamellae, lacunae, osteocyte and canaliculi
aligned in the same direction as the lines of stress in a long bone
interstitial lamellae
areas between osteons
circumferentail lamellae
lamellae that encircle the bone just beneath the periosteum or encircle the medullary cavity
spongy bone tissue
anatomy
does not contain osteons
osteocytes in irregularly arranged lacunae,
surrounded by lamella in an irregular lattice of thin columns called trabeculae- macroscopic spaces between trabeculae make bone lighter and give it a "spongy" appearance
spongy bone tissue
physiology
trabeculae are precisely oriented along lines of stress where bone stress is not heavy
they support and protect the red bone marrow where hemopoeisis occurs in adults