Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/87

Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bones are pourus and thin but bone composition is normal.
Osteoporosis
Bone formed is poorly mineralized and soft. Deforms on weight-bearing.
Osteomalacia
Abnormal bone formation and reabsorption
Paget's Disease
An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the arts. Common in children.
Greenstick
Bone fragments into many pieces.
Comminuted
Common sports fracture resulting from a twisting force.
Spiral
The lining of the marrow cavity.
Endosteum
Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix.
Osteoclasts
Layers of bone matrix
Lamellae
Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone.
Canaliculi
Cells that can build bony matrix.
Osteoblasts
The cells responsible for the early stages of endochondral ossification.
Chondrocytes
The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface.
Appositional Growth
The area of long bones where cartilage cells are replaced by bone cells.
Diaphysis
The appearance of this structure signals the end of bone growth.
Epiphyseal Line
Area where bone longitudal growth takes place.
Epiphyseal Plate
Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones. T/F?
True
Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone. T/F?
False
Bones are classified by whether they are weight-bearing or protective in function. T/F?
False
The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.T/F?
False
Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the
bones light. T/F?
False
In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow. T/F?
False
The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk. T/F?
True
The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones. T/F?
True
Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite. T/F?
True
All bones formed by intramembranous ossification are irregular bones. T/F?
False
An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only. T/F?
True
The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress. T/F?
True
Bone tissue in the skeleton of a human fetus is completely formed at six monthsʹ gestation. T/F?
False
Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions. T/F?
True
Cartilage has a flexible matrix which can accomodate mitosis of chrondrocytes. T/F?
True
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
Compact Bone
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.
Fat
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.
Osteoblast
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
Hyaline Cartilage
In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause ________.
Decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.
Diaphysis
The term diploë refers to ________.
The internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
Select the correct statement concerning the location of blood-forming tissue.
The sternum (breastbone) is a good source of blood-forming tissue.
Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ________.
Drinking fluoridated water
Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.
Is produced by secondary ossification centers
Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human skeleton. What is responsible for the
resilience of cartilage?
High water content
The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.
Hyaline
Which of the following is (are) not the function(s) of the skeletal system?
Communication
The structural unit of compact bone is ________.
The osteon
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic)
layer consists primarily of ________.
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.
Perforating (Sharpeyʹs ) fibers
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of
________.
Blood vessels and nerve fibers
The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called ________.
Lacunae
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.
Appositional growth
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
Osteoclast
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the
bloodstream?
Parathyroid hormone
Vertebrae are considered ________ bones.
Irregular
The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40 ________.
Reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization
A bone fracture perpendicular to the boneʹs axis is called a(n) ________ fracture.
Transverse
Wolffʹs law is concerned with ________.
The thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
Cranial bones develop ________.
Within fibrous membranes
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood
calcium levels?
Thyroid
Osteomyelitis is ________.
Due to pus-forming bacteria
Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. Appositional growth is ________.
The secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow
from within.
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.
By pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________.
Trabeculae
Osteogenesis is the process of ________.
Bone formation
Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.
Interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
Growth Hormone
In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?
Elevated levels of sex hormones
It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces placed on it. Which of the following hypotheses may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells
responsible for bone remodeling?
Electrical signals direct the remodeling process.
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.
Calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Which fracture would be least likely in a 92-year-old?
Greenstick
_____________ are not one of the four cell types that populate bone tissue in adults.
Mesenchymal cells
Ostealgia is ________________.
Pain in the bone
A fracture in which a bone is broken into many pieces would be classified as a ________ fracture.
Comminuted
Blood cell formation is called ________.
Hematopoiesis
A bone embedded in a tendon is called a ________ bone.
Sesamoid
A central (Haversian) canal may contain arteries, veins, capillaries, lymph vessels, and
________ fibers.
Nerve
A narrow slitlike opening in bones is called a ________
Fissure
A long bone forms by a process known as ________ ossification.
Endochondral
________ growth is growth in the diameter of long bones.
Appositional
________ are multinucleated cells that destroy bone.
Osteoclasts
________ is a disease of the bone in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones.
Osteoporosis
A round or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels and/or nerves is called a ________.
Foramen
What is found in a Haversian canal?
Blood vessels and nerve fibers.
Several hormones control the remodeling of bones. Which two respond to changing blood
calcium levels?
PTH and calcitonin
Why are the bones of young children much more flexible than those of the elderly?
Bones of children are not completely calcified
Inflamation of bony tissue is called ________.
Osteitis