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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what highly unusual properties make water the most important inorganic compound?
-High Heat Capacity
What is the difference between a solvent and a solute?
Solvent- medium in which other atoms, ions, or molecules are disperesed
Solute- dispersed substances
soluable inorganic molecules whoes ions will conduct and electrical current in a solution

molecules (glucose) interact readily with water molecules

molecules that don't readily interect with water molecules
any solute that dissociates (breaks apart) in a solution and releases hydrogen ions, and lowering pH
solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution and therby acts as a proton acceptor
accidity is measuered by the?
pH scale
pH is a measure of the concentration of what ion?
hydrogen (H+)
As the pH of a solution becomes lower (toward pH 1) is the solution increasing or decreasing in acidity?
by what factor does acidity change between pH units?
increasing concentration of H+ or OH-
Many fluids approx. have a neutral pH. what is the pH of blood? Is it neutral?
7.35 to 7.45

-its close to neutral but its basic
How does a strong acid differ from a weak acid?
strong acids dissociate completely in a solution while weak acids fail to
whats a buffer? Name one of the body's most important buffers.
-compunds that stabalize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing H+ ions... water?
what elements are found in all organic compounds?
C, O, H
Whats carbohydrate?
organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1
carbohydrates are built from?
sugars and starches
.:: simple sugars ::.
carbohydrate containing 3-7 carbon atoms
common pentose and hexose sugars? write formulas and draw symbols
pentose (5-carbon) C5 H10 O5

hextose (6-carbon) C6 H12 O6
when 2 monosaccharides join together
which monossachrides form together to form sucrose? lactose? maltose?
glucose+fructose= sucrose
glucose+glactose= lactose
glucose+glucose= maltose
large molecules made up of glucose
Most important plant polysaccahrides in our diet? which monos. comine to form poly? which body cells store the poly?

stored in liver and skeletal muscle
what are the major functions of carbohydrates in our bodies?
energy sources
Lipids are bulidt from what elements?
C, O, H- but much less O

sometimes (P, N, S)
how does the compostion of lipids differ from the compostion of carbohydrates? how are they reflected in respective solubilites?
lipids contain less oxygen than carbohydrates --> And lipids are not soluable in water
Describe the structure of a fatty acid.
long carbon chains with Hydrogen attoms attached
what does it mean if a fatty acid is saturated or unsaturated?
saturated- All single bonds
(solid animal fat)
unsaturated- 1 or more double bonds (plant oils)
structure of a neutral fat or triglyceride
glycerol + three fatty acids
major functions of triglyceride in our bodies
energy source, Insulation, and protection
( are stored in the body as lipid droplets within cells)
what element in addition are included in a phospolipid?
- 2 fatty acid
- P phosphate
(very polar)
what are the major functions of phospholipids in the body?
An important membrane lipid whose structure includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
describes molecules that interact readily with water
describes molecules that do not interact readily with water
what is a glycolipid? how does a glycolipid differ from a phospholipid?
glycolipid- compounds created by the combination of carbohydrate and lipid components
phospolipids- links to non lipid grounp where the carbohydrate is attacked by diglyceride in glycolipid
are steriods soluable in water or fat?
which steriod is the basic structural component of all other steriods in the body?
What are some functions of steriods?
growth, reprodection, and protection from stress
absorption of Ca and fat
Prostaglandins are eicosanoids. What molecule is used to build prostaglandins?
fatty acids... (lipids)
what are some funtions of prostaglandins?
chemical messengers, coordinating local cellulat activites
All proteins contain these elements!
and what addition element is found in some?
C, O, H, N

Proteins are built by linking smaller molecules in long chains. Name the smaller molecules.
Amino acids (AA)
Describe Amino Acid
-proteins that consist of long chains of organic molecules
(what we use to build proteins)
Describe primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins.
primary- single string of AA
secondary- helix
tertiary-globular and fiborus
quartenary- 2 or more polypeptide chains
how do globular proteins differ from fibrous? are the both soluable in water?
globular- working proteins/ enzymes form glob. proteins
fibrous-ropelike, collogen, keratin, insol. in water
some functions of globular and fibrous proteins in the body.
globular- antibodies, control chem. reactions
fibrous- play structural roles, insoluable
is an enzyme a globular protein, or a fibrous?
what are enzymes named?
what is the function of an enzyme?
- catalysts
reations to sustain life
can an enzyme catalyze many different reactions?
each enzyme catalizes 1 reaction
( they dont change chemically)
What happends to a protein when it is denatured? How does denaturation affect protein function?
- shape is changed
-they can not carry out their function
Can a denatured protein be "fixed"?
-permanent/ irreversible like an eggwhite
-temporary/ reversible like a fever