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50 Cards in this Set

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what is Proteus?
True membrane, unicellular
Give the General Characterists of AMOEBAS
BODY TYPE/COMPOSITION: Cytoplasm enclosed by plasmalemma (plasma + lemma or skin)
MOVEMENT: Pseudopodia (false Feet)
REPRODUCTION: Asexual (binary Fission)
NUTRITION: Ingestion
LIFE STRATEGY: Mostly free living, except parasitic
Plhylum Euglenozoa and Chloraphyta (free-living flagellates)
BODY TYPE/COMPOSISTION: Pellicle Secreted cy ectoplasm
MOVEMENT: Flagellum
REPRODUCTION: Longitudinal
fissioN
NUTITION: holophytic
LIFE STATEGY: free, some are parasitic
Trypanosoma (Phylumm Euglenozoa)
NUTRITION: absorption
TRANSMISSION: bug bites
African Sleeping Sickness
Chagas' disease
WHERE IT LIVES: Blodd/tissue of all vertebrates

*lack cloraplast
Trichomonas
CAUSES: Vaginitis (sexually transmitted, or wet towels)
PHYLUM: Axostylata
Gairdia Lambia
CAUSES: Transmission through feces contaminated water
OTHER NAMES: Beaver fever (severe diarrhea)
Phylum Apicomplexan
BODY TYPE: endoparasidic
MOVEMENT: gliding or body changing
REPRODUCTION: Multiple fission (Schizogony)
NUTRITION: Absorbed (Asmotrophic)
LIFE STATEGY: cause disease (malaria)
Plasmodium
CAUSES: Malaria
2 hosts
LIVES: red blood cells
Toxoplasma Gondii
CAUSES: Toxoplamosis
Oocysts transmits through cat feces, or ingestion of undercooked meat of infected animal
Hepatitis, Neurological Hysfunction, Blindness, Pneumonia, still birth or birth defects
Phylum Ciliophora
BODY TYPE: Outer Ectoplasm/Inner endoplasm
MOVEMENT: Cilia
REPRODUCTION: Bianry Fission
NUTRITION: ingestion Holozok
LIFE STATEGY: Decaying organic matter
Body surrounded by pellicle
Cell Membrane
FUNCTION: Control entry and exit of Ions
Selectivly permeable double layer membrane of phospholipids with glycoproteins
Protection
Pinocytic Cesicle
Piece of membrane that pinches into the cell to ingest materials
Cytoplasm
Between Nuclius and Cell membrane hold organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Protein synthesis and transport
stacs folded membrane that extends from Nuclear envolop/membrane
Ribosomes
make protein
made from rRNA and protein
Golgi Body
Storage
made up of Protein
maturing face is protein products bud off membrane
Lysosome
With Digestive enzumes
may rupture as suiced sacs to destroy diseased cell
Mitochondria
"Power House"
Site of ATP Synthesis
Cristae- fold eith mitochondia
Vacuole
Storage
Regulates Pressure in sell
Example Aloe
Nucleus
Control Center
Houses Chromatin (made up of DNA)
Nucleolus
in Nucleus
Special area of chromosomes that make of rRNA
Nuclear membrane
double lipid layer with pores to allow (messanger)RNA out of nucleus
Mictofilaments
include actin protein
thin, linear
reponsible for contraction
Pseudopodia
false foot
movement
on Amoeba
Cilia and Flagella
extention of cell membrane
movement
made of microtubules
9 + 2 arrangement= 9 inside, 2 pair in the middle
Included in Interphase
G1 S G2 M
Interphase
Period of no cell division
most mitosis happens her
cell carries out routine activites
G1
RNA ribosomes, enzymes are made to prpare for DNA synthesis
S
DNA Sythesis/ Duplication
G2
Spindle fiber proteins are made and form band around nucleus
Mitosis
Cell Division
Prophase
Chromatin condenses to Chromosomes
Nuclear membrane dossp;bes
Centrids/ centromenes duplicate and migrate to poles
Metaphase
Chromosomes align in middle of cell
Anaphase
Centromere splits each goes with its own chromosomes
chromosomes moves to opposite poles spindle fibers shorten
Telophase
Chromosomes at opposite poles
Nuclear membrane reforms
Spindle Fibers disinigrates
Chromosomes become diffused
Cytokinesis
division of cytoplasm, cleavage furrow form
Enzymes
special Protein that catalyze nearly all chemicall reactions in cells
How do Enzymes work
speed up chemical reactions y reducing the amount of activation energy needed to break chemical bonds to initiate chemical reaction
what speeds up Enzymes?
high tempuratures, work slower at lower tempuratures
and opperate at neutral pH
Passive Transport
movement of materials without any external source of chemical energy being required
Brownian Motion
constan jiggling of molecules and ions
caused by kinetic energy by heat
Brownnian mobemtn is the source of what passive transport?
diffusion
osmosis
facilitated diffusion
diffusion
high consentraion to low consentration
Caused by collision beween molecules
Osmosis
in waster
molecules move across a semi- permeable or selectively permeable membrane
water is more concentrated to low concentration
equilibrium
Semi Permeable membrane Permits what?
small moecules(water) to pas through it freely but restricts movement of larger molecules
Hypotonic
explode, below tention heve more solvent then solute
Hypertonic
Crenate(shrink), tension above, more solute than solvent
Isotonic
wate/solute concentration inside sames as the water/solute concentration on outside
Dialysis Experiment
Combination of diffusion and osmosis
diffusion of molecules through semi permeale membrane
small solutes water diffuse avross memebrane
Facilitated diffusion
movement of molecules across membrane with the assistance of protein carriers