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137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the rings of muscle called around the metarterioles?
precapillary sphincters
what is intermitten contraction and relaxation called?
vasomotion
ADH causes what?
vasoconstriction, water retention
what is the primary site of exchange of nutrients, gases & wastes between blood and tissue?
capillaries
NO causes what?
vasodilation
what are the forces involved in circulating blood called?
hemodynamics
what type of capillary has intercellular clefts?
continuous capillaries
what kind of blood vessel carries blood from the heart to the tissues?
arteries
what are the gaps between neighboring endothelial cells called in capillaries?
intercellular clefts
what does the size of the lumen, blood viscosity, and the total blood vessel length cause?
peripheral resistance
what is the only layer that the capillaries have?
tunica interna
what are fenstrations?
holes in the plasma membrane
what is immediate and localized, the abillity for tissue to automatically adjust its blood flow to match its metabolic demands?
autoregulation
what type of capillary has very large fenestraions?
sinusoids
whether fluids leave or enter capillaries depends on net balance of pressures called the what?
net filtration pressure
what vessels control BP by changing diameter?
arterioles
what is the primary site of exchange between mother and child?
placenta
venules merge to form veins that bring blood where?
back to the heart
what are the smallest veins called?
venules
venules begin the return path to where?
the heart
what is the volume of blood flowing back to the heart from the systemic veins called?
venous return
veins have valves called what?
tunica intima
what vein has no muscle at all?
venous sinus
what are the two pumps that help venous return?
skletal muscle pump, respiratory pump
about 60% of the blood volume at rest are in where?
systemic veins and venules
what is the movement of materials in & out of capillaries? (most important method)
diffusion
blood pressure, resistance to flow, and venous return are factors affecting what?
circulation (blood flow)
what are two baroreceptor reflexes?
aortic reflex and carotid sinus reflex
what does the tunic externa do?
protects the vessel
what is the passage of materials across enodthelium in tiny vesicles by endocytosis and exocytosis?
transcytosis
what does the tunica media consist of?
smooth muscle
what is the movement of a large amount of dissolved or suspended material (ions, molecules, particles) in the same direction? (particles caught in current)
bulk flow
what does the tunica interna consist of?
endothelium
the carotid reflex maintains normal blood pressure where?
in the brain
what is the cavity or an opening in tube called?
lumen
what is the movement of materials into interstitial fluid?
filtration
the aortic reflex maintains what kind of BP?
general systemic
what helps propel blood onward despite ventricular relaxation?
pressure resevoir
what is driven by blood hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure?
filtration
what is the hydrostatic pressure exerted by blood on walls of vessels?
blood pressure
chemoreceptor reflexes detect what?
chemical changes
what are two pressure reservoirs?
aorta and pulmonary
what is the movement from interstitial fluid into capillaries?
reabsorption
what kind of artery is medium sized with more muscle than elastic fibers in tunic media?
muscular arteries
what is friction between blood and the walls of vessels called?
resistance
In the endocrine system, what is released in the bloodstream and travels throughout the body?
hormones
what glands secrete products (hormones) into the bloodstream?
endocrine glands
what is a mediator molecule that is released in one part of the body but regulates activity of cells in other parts of the body?
hormones
growth and development, and reproduction are the general functions of what?
hormones
what decreases sensitivity of target cells to hormones by decreasing the number of receptors?
down-regulation
what is it called when target tissue is more sensitive to the hormone production of more receptors?
up-regulation
what is it called when molecules of a lipid-soluble hormone are not bound to a transport protein?
free fraction
when hormones diffuse through plasma membrane & into cell, and bind to receptors turning on/off specific genes, is this an action of lipid or water soluble hormones?
lipid
when hormones diffuse through plasma membrane & into cell, and bind to receptors turning on/off specific genes, is this an action of lipid or water soluble hormones?
lipid
when hormones cannot diffuse through plasma membrane, and hormone receptors are integral membrane proteins, is it lipid or water soluble?
water
what acts as the first messenger?
what acts as the second messenger in water soluble hormones?
hormone, cAMP
what depends on:
concentration of the hormones
number of receptors for the hormone
influence exerted by other hormones
responsiveness of target
(hormonal interactions)
when a second hormone strengthens the effect of the first, it is the what effect?
permissive effect
(hormonal interactions)
when two hormones act together for
greater effect, it is the what effect?
synergistic
(hormonal interactions)
two hormones with opposite effects, is the what effect?
antagonistic
(hormonal interactions)
two hormones with opposite effects, is the what effect?
antagonistic
hypothalamus and pituitary glands both are what since their hormones control other endocrine glands?
master endocrine glands
what small arteries deliver blood to the capillary beds?
arterioles
the hypothalamus and pituitary glands are located where?
on the base of the brain
tropins regulate what?
everything
osmotic pressure is highest where particle concentration is what?
highest
what gland of the endocrine system regulate: thirst and hunger, body tempuature, sexual behavior, and defensive reactions(fear and anger)?
hypothalamus
what gland in the endocrine system link the nervous and endocrine sys.?
hypothalamus
what gland in the endocrine system secrete hormones like hGH, TSH, FSH, LH, and PRL?
anterior pituitary
what gland in the endocrine system does
not synthesize hormones?
posterior pituitary
what gland in the endocrine system is
located on each side of the trachea?
thyroid gland
which gland secretes T3 & T4 and calcitonin?
thyroid gland
parathyroid glands are located where?
behind the thyroid glands
what does the parathyroid hormone do?
change calcium levels in blood
the pancreas have both of what functions?
exocrine and endocrine
the thymus gland is located behind the
_____, and between the _______?
sternum, lungs
cells of the body are serviced by what two fluids?
blood, interstitial fluid
the pH level of blood is what?
7.4
blood is 55% ___ and 45% ____?
plasma, formed elements
what maintains blood osmotic pressure?
albumin
what helps the immune response in blood?
globulins
what is for clotting in the blood?
fibrinogen
hemoglobin is a ____ carrying protein?
oxygen
nitric oxide regulates what?
BP
hemoglobin is a ____ carrying protein?
oxygen
what is short lived and has no repairs
do to lack of organelles?
RBCs
erythropoiesis is the production of what?
RBCs
stem cells, then proerythroblasts, then
reticulocytes are the steps of what?
RBCs
what is the attraction of white blood cells to chemicals produced by bacteria or inflammation?
chemotaxis
granulocytes and agranulcytes are two types of what?
WBCs
what WBC has the fastest response of all
WBCs to bacteria?
neutrophils
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils are
granulocytes or agranuloctyes?
granulocytes
T/F basophils secrete histamine?
T
lymphocyte and monocyte are agranulocytes or granulocytes?
agranulocytes
monocytes differenciate into what?
macrophages
what is in the blood and is under the influence of thrombopoietin?
platelets
hemolytic disease of the newborn is where the mother is __ and the baby is
__?
RH-, RH+
the universal recipient is?
AB
the universal donor is?
O
the heart is located in the _____?
mediastinum
what does the fibrous pericardium do?
anchors the heart
what does the serous pericardium do?
allows the heart to move
the parietal layer of the fibrous pericardium is the _____ layer?
outer
epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium
are layers of the _____?
heart
what layer of the heart wall is the cardiac muscle layer bulk of the heart?
myocardium
semilunar valves prevent what?
the backflow of blood
what are the grooves on the surface of the heart containing coronary blood vessels and fat called?
sulci
the right side of the heart pumps
deoxygenated blood where?
to the lungs
what muscles in the heart are cone shaped, raised bundles of cardiac muscle?
papillary
what are cords between valve cusps and
the papillary muscles?
chordae tendineae
when the heart is diastole it is what?
in relaxation
the left side of the heart pumps blood where?
through the body
what holds the valves in place and prevents over stretching?
fibrous skeleton
what is the electrical insulator between
atria and ventricles?
fibrous skeleton
when the heart is systole the heart what?
in contraction
preload is the effect of what?
stretching
what is the amount of pressure created by the blood in the way?
afterload
the coronary sinus empties into where?
the right atrium
what is the disease where the heart muscle receives insufficient blood supply?
coronary artery disease
atherosclerosis are fatty deposits where?
walls of arteries
what is the heart pain from ischemia of cardiac muscle?
angina pectoris
intercalated discs and desmasomes do what to cardiac muscle?
keep the fibers stuck together
autorhythmic cells are what?
self excitable
cardiac cell(contractile fibers)resting
membrane potential is what?
-90mv
depolarization, plateau phase, and repolarization is what?
the physiology of a contraction
in what phase of the physiology of a contraction do Ca+2 channels open?
plateau phase
what is the name of a sustained contraction?
tetany
baroreceptors detect what?
pressure
proprioceptors monitor position of the what?
limbs and muscles
sympathetic impulses _____ heart rate?
increase
parasympathetic impulses _____ heart rate?
decrease
hormones, ions,- age, gender, physical fitness, and tempurature regulate what?
heart rate
what disease reduces blood flow to the myocardium?
ischemia
what form branches into capillary beds?
metarterioles
epinephrine and norepinephrine does what?
increase heart rate, vasodilation
hormones of what gland promote the proliferation & maturation of T cells?
thymus gland
what does the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system do?
regulate BP, causes vasoconstriction