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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the science of the structure of organisms
Physiology –
the science of the function of organisms
Levels of Organization in Body:
1. body as a whole
2. organ systems (11)
3. organs
4. tissues (collection of similar cells)
5. cells (smallest unit of life that in and of itself
possesses the properties of life)
6. chemical (atoms & molecules)
Anatomical Position –
reference position; erect standing palms forward; allows one to describe body
parts relative to other body parts
1. anterior (front)
2. superficial (toward skin surface)
3. superior (toward head)
4. medial (toward mid-line of body
5. proximal (toward point of attachment)
2. deep
4. lateral
5. distal
Planes of Body:

1. sagittal
2. horizontal
3. frontal
1. divides body into right and left sides
2. divides into upper and lower
3. divides into front and back
four major types of tissue in body:
1. muscular
2. nervous
3. epithelial (forms linings of things)
4. connective
There are six major types of connective tissue, and the skeletal system consists of three of them:
bone, cartilage, and fibrous (ligaments)
Functions of skeletal system:
1. protection
2. framework of support
3. provides for levers that move at joints when a force
is applied
4. mineral storage
5. hemopoiesis –
blood cell formation by red marrow within the bone; almost all bones of a child
contain red marrow, but much of it turns into relatively inactive yellow marrow by adulthood; in adult skeleton, red marrow found in occipital
bone, ribs, vertebrae, sternum, proximal epiphyses of femur and humerus
Classification of Bones into Types:
1. long – humerus, femur
2. short – carpals, tarsals
3. flat – sternum, scapula
4. irregular – mandible, vertebrae
5. sesamoid – located within tendons; patella is one
that everyone has; but they are formed on an
individual basis due to persistent stress on a tendon
Internal Structure of Bone
1. compact bone (solid)
a. consist of osteons (side-by-side weight-bearing pillars that run parallel to rim of bone
consist of lamellae (concentric tubular rings of matrix)
itercellular, inanimate material that bone consists of
matrix consists of
1. minerals (50%)
2. collagen (25%) rope-like protein that reinforces strength of matrix
3 fluid (25%)