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27 Cards in this Set

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Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis)
Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis)
TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL, GH
Thyroid
-simple cuboidal epithelial cells: thyroxine (T4) and T3
-parafollicular cells/C cells: calcitonin
parathyroid
epithelial tissue, glandular cells serete parathyroid hormone
pancreas
-alpha cells: glucagon
-beta cells: insulin
Adrenal cortex
-mineralcorticoids: aldosterone:zona glomerulosa
-glucocorticoids: cortisone: zona fasciculata
-gonadocorticoids: testosterone, estrogen: zona reticularis
adrenal medulla
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Male pig
penile opening in the middle of abdomen, no vaginal openining
female pig
vaginal opening, urogenital papilla
Saliva
-found in the mouth
-hydrolyzes starch
-optimum pH 8
Gastric juice
-found in the stomach
-hydrolyzes complex proteins
-optimum pH 2
pancreatic juice
-found in duodenum
-hydrolyzes carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
-optimum pH 8
-contains bicarboonate buffer which neutralizes acid chyme from the stomach
normal blood glucose levels
80-120
after meals: 130-150
hypoglycemia
too much insulin is produced so glucose levels drop to very low levels
hyperglycemia
low insulin levels cause high glucose levels to return to normal slowly
Type I diabetes
not enough insulin is produced
Type II diabetes
insulin is produced but the body does not respond to it so glucose levels remain relatively the same
what gases control respiratory rate and how?
CO2 and O2. an increase in CO2 or decrease in O2 is detected by chemoreceptors which stimulate the inspiratory center to increase breathing rate.
What does breathing into a bad, hyperventilating, breath holding, and exercise do to the amount of CO2 in the body and how do these changes affect respiratory rates?
Breathing into a bag and exercise increase breathing rate which increases carbon dioxide levels. hyperevntilating decreases breathing rate and decreases CO2 levels. as CO2 decreases, the ability to hold your breath increases
Expiratory reserve volume
breathe normally a few times and after normal expiration, exhale as much as possible
Vital capacity
breathe deeply a few times and and after inhaling as much as possible, exhale everything from lungs
inspiratory reserve volume
(tidal + expiratory) - vital
What are the components that blood seperates into when centrifuged?
top half-plasma
thin layer in the middle- WBC + platelets
bottom half-RBC
Hematocrit
% of whole blood that is compised of RBC
Type A blood
RBC clump together in "a"
Type B blood
RBC clump together in "b"
Type O Blood
No clumping