Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/102

Click to flip

102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of structure or form, often done by dissection of cadavers
anatomy
study of function and is primarily an experimental science
physiology
involves making numerous observations and drawing generalizations and predictions
inductive method
begins with the formulation of a hypothesis (an educated speculation or possible answer to a question
deductive method
information that can be independently verified by any trained person
scientific fact
generalization supported by much scientific evidence
law of nature
explanatory statement, or set of statements, derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypothesis
theory
refers to change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms over time
evolution
only surving species
homo sapiens
collection of properties
life
bodys ability to maintain relatively constant internal conditions and to return to those conditions if upset
homeostasis
main way the body returns to stable conditions
negative feedback
is a self amplying cycle
positive feedback
stance in which a person stand erect with the feet flat on the floor, arms at the sides, and the palms, face and eyes facing foward
anatomical position
divides it into left and right portions
sagital plane
divides the body into equal halves
mid sagital
divides the body into unequal halves
para sagital
divides the body into upper and lower portion
transverse
towards the front or belly
ventral
towards the back
dorsal
toward the ventral side
anterior
toward the dorsal side
posterior
above
superior
below
inferior
toward the medium plane
medial
away from the medium plane
lateral
means closer to the point of attachment
proximal
farther from the point of attachment
distal
closer to the body surface
superficial
farther from the body surface
deep
consist of the head, neck, trunk
axial region
contains the appendages
appendicular
has two subdivisions cranial and vertebral
dorsal body cavity
pleural and pericardial cavity
thoracic cavity
protection support and movement
integumentary, skeletal, muscular systems
internal communication and integreation, it is the fast control systems
nervous system
internal communication and integration, it is the slow control system
endocrine systems
fluid transport
circulatory, lympathic system
defense
immune systems
input and output (exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide)
respirtory system
input and output (remove waste from blood)
urinary
input and output (physical and chemical breakdown of food
digestive system
produce offspring
reproductive system
all matter is composed of
atoms
simplest form of an atom is
element
determines the chemical properties of an atom
electrons
vary in the number of neutrons
isotopes
charged particles
ion
gained an election and has a negative charge
anion
lost an electron and has a positive charge
cation
molecules that ionize in water, forming a solution that can conduct electricity
electrocytes
contain an odd number of electrons and tend to be reactive and destructive to other molecules
free radicals
one atom goins electrons an the other loses electron
ionic bond
form between the slightly positive hydrogen of one molecule and the slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen of another molecule
hydrogen bond
has unique properties
water
solvency, cohesion, adhesion, thermal stability, chemical reactivity all deal with
water
occurs when substances are physically blended together, but do not combine chemically
mixture
mad up of particles (solute) mixed into a more abundant substance (solvent)
solution
cloudy mixture that remains permanently mixed, change from liquid to gas
colliods
have larger particles and do not remain mixed
an emulsion is a suspension of one liquid into another
suspensions
is a molecule that releases a proton (hydrogen ion) in water
acid
is a proton acceptor, it usually accepts hydrogen ions
base
is a measure of hydrogen ions
pH
chemicals that resist changes in pH are
buffers
energy of motion
kinetic
stored energy
potential
energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created nor destroyed
first law of thermodynamics
every energy transfer, some energy is lost as heat and is no longer able to do work
second law of thermodynamics
process in which a chemical bond is made or broken
chemical reaction
larger molecule is broken down into smaller parts
decomposition reactions
two or more smaller molecules are joined to form a large molecule
synthesis reactions
two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms
exchange reacitons
can go either direction under certain circumstances and are represented with double headed arrow
reversible reactions
all chemical reactions in the body necessary to maintain life
metabolism
consist of energy releasing decompostion reactions
catabolism
consist of energy storing reactions
anabolism
4 major categories of organic compounds
carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
molecule that consist of a long chain of identical or similar sub units
polymer
monomers joined together to form a polymer through dehydration synthesis is called
polymerization
polymers are broken into monomers by
hydrolysis
hydrophillic organic molecules composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen atoms, bodies primary source of energy
carbs
monosaccardides, disaccarides, polysaccardies are all
carbs
polysaccharide that serves to store energy for plants
starch
polysaccaride that humans and animals use to store energy
glycogen
hydrophobic organic molecules composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, they usually have a high ration of hydrogen to oxygen
lipids
composed of a chain of 4-24 carbon atoms, with a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other
fatty acids
neutral fat made up of 3 fatty acids bound to a molecule of glycerol
triglyceride
contain 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
phospholipids
prostaglandins and steriod are also
lipids
protein is a polymer of amino acids, amino acid has a carboxyl end, an amino end, and a variable group
no answer
refers to sequence or order of the amino acids in the protein
primary structure
is a coiled or folded shape produced by hydrogen bonding
secondary structure
furthur bending and folding produced by bonding among and between R groups
tertirary structure
refers to the shape of the protein, protein cannot function properly if the shape of the protein is altered
protein conformation
are proteins that function as catalysts, they speed up chemical reaction
enzymes
are not changed or altered in the chemical reaction
enzymes
has three principal components a single or double carbon nitrogen ring called a nitrogenous base, a sugar (monosaccaride), and one or more phosphate groups
nucleotide
the universal energy carrying molecule
ATP
polymers of nucleotides
nucleic acids
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and RNA are types of
nucleic acids
contains sugar deoxyribose and is the genetic information of the cell
dna
contains the sugar ribose and is used to synthesize proteins
RNA