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85 Cards in this Set

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anatomy is the?
Science of body structures and the relationships among them.
Physiology is?
is the science of how the body works
Another name for an action pontenitail (AP) is
a nerve impulse.
What is homeostasis?
this is the condition of equilbrium ( Balance) in the bodys internal environment.
Or, Homeostasis is the
Trying to keep the variables with a narrow wrange.
Homeostasis in the body is?
Constantly being disturbed.
Which two systems either together or independently work to maintian homeostasis?
The nervous system and the endocrine system
Nerves send APs that try to?
Quickly change a variable.
The endocrine system sends?
Hormones to change a variable! This is slower but just as effective.
What kind of feedback system do the nervous system and the endocrine use?
They use a negative feed back loop.
What are the 2 feedback loops?
Negative or positive.
What is a feedback system or loop?
A cycle of events is which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, re-evaluated and so on.
Each monitored variable is called a (Ex. Body Temp.)
A controlled condition.
Anything that changes a controlled condition is a?
Stimulus.
A controlled condition is a?
Monitored variable.
A stimulus is?
Anything that changes a controlled condition.
What are the 3 parts to a feedback system?
1.) Receptor
2.) Control center
3.) Effector.
What is the job of the receptor?
This is a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to the controlled center.
Give an exapmle of a control center.
The brain
What is the job of the control center?
It sets the range in which the variables being monitored must be kept.
What is the effectors job?
It receives output from the control center and produces a response or it effects that changes the controlled condition.
The stimulus does this?
Disrupts homeostasis.
The receptor does this?
Monitors changes in a variable.
the receptor sends input to the?
Control center.
The control center sends out output called?
Effectors.
The effecotrs response does this?
Alters the controlled condition.
Homeostasis is achieved when the effector?
Returns the monitored variable back to the normal range or another stimulus occurs.
Negative feedback turns on when?
the monitored variable goes out of its normal range and turns off when the variable moves back into its normal range.
The action of the negative feedback is slowed or stopped when the montiotored variable?
Returns to normal.
Hence negative feedback is how the response or effector reverses the?
Original stimulus.
Positive feedback does this?
It enhances the original stimulus.
Or, positive feedback ehnaces or strengthens a?
Change in a monitored controlled condition.
Postive feedback is not this?
Its not homeostasis.
To stop positive feedback we need this?
An outside stimulus.
Give an example of Positive feedback?
Childbirth.
The body usually functions of this feedback?
Negative feedback.
With positive feedback and childbirth the positive feedback continues until?
The child is out of the body.
In positive feedback something external must happen to?
Stop whats happening or an outside stimulus must occur.
Positive feedback reinforces the?
Stimulus or the condition.
prone =
The body is face down
Suspine =
The body is laying face up on its spine.
Anteriror =
the front
Posterior =
the back
Superior =
toward the top of the body
Inferior =
toward the lower part of the body.
Medial =
Nearer to the midline.
Lateral =
Farther from the midline
Intermediate =
Between 2 structures
Ipsilateral =
On the same side of the body
Contrlateral =
On opposite sides of the body.
Proximal =
Neare tot he attachment of the trunk.
Distal =
farther away.
Superficial =
Toward the surface of the body.
Deep =
Away from the surface of the body.
Sagiatial palne diveds the body into?
Left and right sides.
Frontal or coronal plane divides the body into?
Front and back.
Transverse palne divides the body into?
Top and bottom halves.
Parasagital plane divides the body into?
Left and right, but its in unequal portions.
Viscera cavity =
organs insdie the thoracic or abdominopelvic cavity.
Diffusion =
The passive procees of materials across a membrane of a cell.
Diffsion moves from a?
Higher concentration to a lower concentration.
Shrot term definition of diffusuin is?
Getting a package from point A to point B.
5 things that affect diffusion?
1.) Steepness of the concentration gradient.
2>) Temperature - Higher temps diffuse faster.
3.) Mass of the diffusing particle - larger is slower.
4.) Surface are of the mebrane. - Alarger membarnes diffusees faster.
5.) Thickness of the diffusing membrane.
Diffusion throught he Lipid Bilayer does not use this?
A transport mechanism.
Ion channels in the membrane - ion channels are like tunnels, ion channels allow the passage of ions that are?
to hydrophobic to penetrate the lipid bilayer/plasma membrane.
Each ion can only diffuse through?
Certain channels or at certain sites.
Hence the ion must find its proper channel meaning that?
Not all ions can through the same channel.
A channel is said to be gated when aprt of the channel portion acts as a?
Plug or gate.
A gated ion channel changes shape on 2 occasions. They are?
The channel changes shape in one way to open the channel and in anoter way to clse the channel.
What is osmosis?
The movement of water across a semipermaeable membrane.
Water moves in this direction?
From an area of lower solute concentraion to an area of higher solute concentration.
Osomosis only occurs when a membrane is permeable to water but is not?
Permeable to the certain solute.
Equlibrium in osmosis is attained when there is equal water on?
Both sides of the membrane.
Tonicity =
Tension
A solutions tonicity is a measure of the solutions ability to change the volume of cells by?
Altering the water content.
Tonicity makes cell biggers by?
putting H2O in the cell
Tonicity will make cell s smaller by?
Removing water form the cells.
An isotonic solution =
Any solution in which a cell maintains its normal shape and volume.
A hypotonic solution =
Water rushes into the cell and the cell bursts.
A hypertonic solution =
Water rushes out of the cell and shrinks and dies.
Facillatated diffusion means that the
Solute must bind to a specific transporter on one side of the membrane and is released on the other side after the transporter changes shape.
Facillated diffusion is this type of process?
Passive.
Active transports is an uphill battle meaning that it is against the?
Gradient.
Active transport need This?
Energy.
In active transport what is the primary source of E?
ATP