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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the superior boundary of the neck made by
mastoid process
superior nuchal line
what is the inferior boundary of the neck made by
acromian process
what is the structure that is the point of attachment for the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle
name the 3 parts of the hyoid bone
greater horn
lesser horn
what are the layers of the deep cervical fascia
investing fascia
prevertebral fascia
pretracheal fascia
carotid sheath
what kind of innervation occur in the neck
cutaneous innervation
name the sensory branches of the cervical plexus
-lesser occipital nerve - C2
-great auricular - C2 and C3
-transverse cervical - C2 and C3
-supraclavicular - C3 and C4
what is another name for sensory branches of cervical plexus
ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C2 to C4
which SUPERFICIAL veins are found in the neck
-External Jugular Veins
-Anterior Jugular Veins
what does the external jugular vein originate from
retromandibular vein
posterior auricular vein
what is the accessory nerve (XI) formed from
union of CRANIAL NERVE (from brainstem)
SPINAL ROOT (from the spinal cord)
describe the passage of the accessory nerve (11)
- pierces deep surface of SCM
-then arrives at occipital triangle
-then passes through the fatty tissue between the investing fascia and prevertebral layers
-from there it goes into the TRAPEZIUS
-then forms a SUBTRAPEZIAL PLEXUS with C3/C4
what comes together to form the brachial plexus
the union of the ventral primary rami of C5 to T1
what does the brachial plexus innervate
upper limbs and muscles of neck
what does the cervical plexus bifurcate into and when does it reunite
reunites: deep to the PREVERTEBRAL FASCIA
where does the common carotid artery divide and what does it divide into
in carotid triangle
into external and internal carotid arteries
where are the infrahyoid muscles found
muscular triangle
where can the vagus nerve be found
carotid sheath
in the carotid sheath what lies with the vagus nerve
internal carotid artery
what does the right vagus nerve descend to
the subclavian artery (and CROSSES it)
what does the right vagus nerve branch into
the right recurrent laryngeal nerve
what does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve loop around
right subclavian artery and goes deep to the common carotid artery
what does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve branch into and how does it get there

-it goes behind the THYROID GLAND and
-enters the larynx from its INFERIOR POSTERIOR aspect
what does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve provide innervation to
inferior constrictor muscle
infraglottic area (sensory)
intrinsic muscles EXCEPT cricothyroid (motor)
which mixed nerve does the vagus nerve give off
superior laryngeal nerve
what are the branches of the superior laryngeal nerve
internal laryngeal nerve (SENSORY)
external laryngeal nerve (MOTOR)
where is the internal laryngeal nerve located and what is it found with
-passes POSTERIOR to the external carotid artery
what does the internal laryngeal nerve innervate
(from the epiglottis to the vocal cord)
what does the external laryngeal nerve follow
superior thyroid artery
what does the external laryngeal nerve innervate
cricothyroid muscle
inferior constrictor muscle
which intrinsic muscle of the LARYNX is the only one to be innervated by a MOTOR nerve
cricothyroid muscle
Besides vagus nerve, what other nerve innervates the anteriror triangle
Cervical Sympathetic Trunk
(consists 3 cervical ganglia)
where is the cervical sympathetic trunk located
posterior to carotid sheath, against the wall of the vertebrae
what are the 3 cervical ganglia of the cervical sympathetic trunk called and where are they located
1. Superior Ganglion = C2-C3 vertebrae level
2. Middle Ganglion = C6 level, at the level of CRICOID cartilage
3. Inferior Ganglion = C7 level
which ganglion is the source of all sympathetics to head and neck
Superior Ganglion
what are the 3 ways for POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC nerves to reach their target for innervation
1. periarterial plexus
2. direct innervation to organs
3. gray rami communicans

NOTE: the cell bodies of these nerves are IN the superior glanglion
what are 2 kinds of periarterial plexus
- internal carotid nerve (plexus on internal carotid artery)
- external carotid nerve (plexus on external carotid artery)
what are 2 examples of direct innervation to organs
1. Pharyngeal Nerve - direct branch to pharyngeal plexus
2. Superior Cardiac Branch - direct branch to cardiac plexus
what does the gray rami communicans connect to
connection to C1-C4 SPINAL NERVE
what are the middle cardiac nerve and inferior cardiac nerve associated with
middle cardiac nerve = middle ganglion
inferior cardiac nerve = inferior ganglion
when does the Stellate Ganglion form
when the Inferior Cervical Ganglion FUSES with the 1st Thoracic Ganglion to form a large, star shaped ganglion
what is the Ansa Subclavian
-a connection between the middle and inferior ganglion
-a small nerve that goes around the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY
what are the 3 main methods of blood supply in the anterior triangle
common carotid
internal carotid
external carotid
what is the main blood supply to brain
common carotid artery
where does the common carotid artery bifurcate and what does it bifurcate into
bifurcates INTO - internal and external carotid arteries
bifurcates AT - the SUPERIOR level of the THYROID cartilage, in the CAROTID TRIANGLE
where is the cartoid sinus
at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery as it goes into the INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY
what is the carotid sinus
where is the carotid body located
in the INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY immediately after bifurcation
what is the carotid body
-a CHEMORECEPTOR that checks O2 and CO2
-innervated by GLOSSOPHHARYNGEAL and VAGUS nerves
does the internal carotid artery give off any branches in the neck
-gives off branches once it reaches the SKULL
in the neck region what are the 5 branches that the External Carotid Artery gives off
Superior Thyroid Artery
Ascending Pharyngeal Artery
Lingual Artery
Facial Artery
Occipital Artery
what does the SUPERIOR THYROID ARTERY anastamose with
-inferior thyroid artery
-right and left superior thyroid artery anastamose
what does the SUPERIOR THYROID ARTERY branch into
infrahyoid artery
sternocleidomastoid branch
superior laryngeal artery
cricothyroid artery
glandular branches
what do the branches of the superior thyroid artery vascularize
1. infrahyoid artery - infrahyoid muscle
2. sternocleidomastoid branch - SCM
3. Superior Laryngeal Artery - larynx
4. Cricothyroid artery - cricothyroid ligament and muscle
5. Glandular Branches - thyroid and parathyroid
what does the cricothyroid artery anastamose with
-RIGHT and LEFT CRICOTHYROID arteries anastamose
in relation to the hyoid bone, how does the infrahyoid artery travel
it travels inferior to the hyoid bone, deep to the infrahyoid muscles
which artery pierces through a SMALL OPENING in the THYROHYOID MEMBRANE and enters the larynx
superior laryngeal artery
where is the ASCENDING PHARYNGEAL ARTERY found and where does it go
-branches off MEDIAL aspect of ECA shortly after bifurcation
-travels behind the ECA and goes to the PHARYNX to vascularize it
where does the lingual artery branch off the ECA
branches off the ANTERIOR aspect of ECA at level of GREATER HORN of the HYOID BONE
where does the lingual artery travel to and what does it vascularize
-DEEP to the DIGASTRIC muscle
-goes to SUBMANDIBULAR triangle
-supplies floor of mouth, tounge, and soft palate
where does the facial artery travel to and what does it vascularize
-DEEP to the DIGASTRIC muscle
-vascularizes the FACIAL REGION via various branches
which arteries go to the submandibular triangle and are found deep to the digastric muscle
facial and lingual arteries
where does the occipital artery travel to and where is it found
-branches off the POSTERIOR aspect of the ECA
-follows the POSTERIOR belly of DIGASTRIC muscle until it reaches the OCCIPITAL region
what does the OCCIPITAL artery vascularize via its branches
-Sternocleidomastoid via the STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID BRANCH
-Posterior neck musculature via DESCENDING BRANCH
-Auricle via Auricular Branch
-Muscles of the skin via Occipital Region
-Mastoid air cells in the mastoid process via MASTOID BRANCH
which 2 arteries supply the SCM
Superior Thyroid Artery (sternocleidomastoid branch)
Occipital Artery (sternocleidomastoid branch)
where does the Internal Jugular Vein drain from
anterior face
cervical viscera
deep muscles of the neck
where and with what can the internal jugular vein be found
-INFERIORLY in carotid sheath
-with internal carotid artery, common carotid artery, and vagus nerve
how can the vagus nerve be located in the carotid sheath
its found posteriorly in between the Internal Jugular Vein and the Common Cartoid Artery
how does the internal jugular vein leave the anterior triange
by passing DEEP to the SCM
where does the internal jugular vein unite with the subclavian vein and what does it form
-posterior to the sternal end of the clavicle
-IJV unites with Subclavian to form BRACHIOCEPHALIC VEIN
where does the IJV begin at and
what does the internal jugular vein receive blood from
facial vein
lingual vein
superior thyroid veins
middle thyroid veins
what does the inferior thyroid vein drain blood into
bracheiocephalic vein
how many arteries supply blood to thyroid and how many veins drain it
2 arteries supply blood
3 veins drain it
which is the suprahyoid muscle
what are the attachment sites of the digastric muscle

**passes SUPERIORLY to the MANDIBLE**
what connects the 2 bellies of the digastric muscle
a common tendon
(held down to the hyoid bone by a connective tissue loop)
where does the Anterior and Posterior Belly of the Digastric muscle connect from
-ANTERIOR BELLY - from hyoid bone to mandible
-POSTERIOR BELLY - from Mastoid process(MASTOID NOTCH) to hyoid bone
what is the function of the infrahyoid muscles
DEPRESSES hyoid bone and STABILIZES it
what is the location and function of the omohyoid
LOCATION - posterior and anterior triangles of neck
FUNCTION - pulls down hyoid bone (depresses) and stabilizes it
what is the origin, insertin and innervation of the OMOHYOID
what is the location and function of the STERNOHYOID MUSCLE
LOCATION - Anteriolateral aspect of neck
FUNCTION - Depresses and Stabilizes the hyoid bone
what is the origin, insertion, and innervation of the STERNOHYOID MUSCLE
ORIGIN - Manubrium and Clavicle, Sternoclavicular joint
INSERTION - Medial to omohyoid and into the BODY of they hyoid
INNERVATION - Ansa cervicalis
what is the location and function of the STERNOTHYROID
LOCATION - Deep to sternohyoid
FUNCTION - depresses the LARYNX by pulling thyroid cartilage down
what is the origin, insertion, and innervation of the STERNOTHYROID
ORIGIN - deep aspect of manubrium
INSERTION - oblique line of thyroid cartilage
INNERVATION - Ansa cervicalis
what is the location and function of the THYROHYOID
LOCATION - deep to sternohyoid
FUNCTION - if hyoid is fixed, it elevates the larynx
what is the origin, insertion, and innervation of the THYROHYOID
ORIGIN - oblique line of thyroid cartilage
INSERTION - greater horn and body of hyoid
which infrahyoid muscle is the only one to NOT be innervated by the ANSA CERVICALIS and what is it innervated by
-innervated by C1, via HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE