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52 Cards in this Set

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1st state
Mesopotamia
35,000 B.C.E
2nd State
The Egyptian State
31,000 B.C.E.
... and ... formed 2,000 B.C.E
Indus and China
... and ... 2,000 years ago
Peru and Mexico
State
Centralized multi-community organization with a formal burocracy standing military and a legal monopoly on violence and power
A state must have...
alot of surplus, taxation
-irrigation and agriculture
-full time army, full time gov't
- full time priests
after the fall of the Roman Empire, the major centers of economic, political, and scientific life lay in what regions?
Muslim Middle East and China
after fall of Roman Empire, Europe was
poor, backward, and politically weak
Modern State
-European Advantage =
peripherally
two parts of the world that are good at keeping pop. settlement instability under control are
China and Western Europe
Global world- ... had the wealth and technology, not Western Europe
China.
It was bigger and had much more people.
China did not play as big a role in the modern industrial state as it had an opportunity to because
it invested in political stability rather than overseas trade.
reasons for chinas stable, non expansive political order
-like Roman Empire, older and doesnt collapse
most enduring civilization the world has ever seen.
-rich and powerful yet its stability prevented it from playing a more world-transformative role.
irrigation and Agriculture in China
constucted many irrigation channels to link the Yellow River and the Yangtze river so that by the beginning of the Common Era there is a network that allows for humongous population.
With population growth and political expansion, a key feature to Chinas stabilization was...
their policy of ethnic signification by making people who came into the Empire Han.
-95% of these ppl are Han.
Chinas population today
1.4 billion people
Mandarinate
is somebody who is educated to an astonishingly high degree in a literal Chinese tradition so as to qualify for being a state administrator.
Mandarinate provides an infrasturcture
for national unity and gives the people a common culture.
Some times the Chinese state weakens to the point of collapse; but the ... with their common culture provide an infrastructure for the reassertion of national unity.
mandarinate
The key to enduring stability is
dissemination(dispersal) and devaluation of commerce and enterprise
keys to enduring stability in China
1. Deliberate limits on merchant wealth for fear...
2. capping commerce...
1. that merchants would threaten the power of the emperor.
2. because wealthy merchants would pose a threat to material power (like in Europe).
Muslim/Chinese trader ZhengHe-
took ocean trips to India and Africa, some ppl think he even had ships in the Atlantic ocean just under Spain. Emperor Stopped him.
The Rise of Europe
Weakness into Strenth by..
Ecological Dispersion.
-Fertile soil all over
-doesnt have to concentrate its population in small river valleys.
Ecological dispersion in Europe leads to
Political Decentralization.
-several weak little states, rather than big ones
Europes weakness becomes a strength in the 11th and 12th century with the growth of
towns and cities
New royal strategy for increasing power-
invest in merchants and towns, giving a certain level of freedom to those living in towns so they can prosper allowing the king to prosper off of higher taxation.
Political Representation in Europe
not democracy, but according rights of representation to merchants, the church, and people who own land.
Standestaat
state of the estates, the people who have representation
Science and Technology in Europe
classics died out.
Military Technology in Europe
beginning of 18th only had cannons and muskets but advanced rapidly because of so much fighting.
-advantage was shipping.
European strategy for sailing around the world
The famous Galleon- newer version of the Arab ship, the lateen, which is better because it sits higher in the water and thus you can fit cannons on them.
origin of capitalism in Europe lies
in the alliance between merchants and kings
- sees the advantage of an economy regulated by law so that if you a merchant become wealthy there are legal protections so that the king cant take your money away. Rulers they needed to invest in commerce in order to be able to compete with their rivals.
by 1900, Europe had gone from being an ... to ... while having just 1/8 of the worlds population
industrial backwater to producing 75% of the worlds manufacturers
-urbanization and growth of great towns
by 1900, population and education in Europe
increase, 90% literacy rate
In pristine states, Monumental architechture (temples, burial centers, palaces) are to
defend royal family or proclaim majesty of royal family
in pristine state, there is a bigger scale of monumental archi. than that of
chiefdoms
Pristine states
Radical social stratification
degree of inequality seen in the control of political, economic, or status resources
-more severe than chiefdoms
Pristine State
examples of radical social stratification
• mountains of slaves, systematically organized (often through warfare and capture during warfare)
• language of citizenship still based on kinship (still thought of everybody as one vast extended family)
Pristine State
Changes in Religion-
-no longer united by kinship
-worship of kings ancestors becomes central preoccupation
massive forced population resettlements
give rise to ethnic pluralism
-diverse ethnic backgrounds in areas for the first time
-try to integrate diverse ethnic population into a common religious tradition -> linking ancestic veneration to others
Why did Pristine States Emerge?
emerge in similar environmental circumscription which creates pressure for political intensification
1. intense agri. in a very environmentally rich place
2. extraordinarily high population
3. lead to a spectacular increase in competition for environmental resources
rise of nationalism
Single-most powerful response from people around the world to this crisis of native culture/traditions of knowledge/politics
Establishment of state which opposes the west but has same ambitions as western states (propose to create developmentalist state)
Developmentalist state
- Gen. of what a new state should be; intervenes w/in society to improve social resources the economy demands; modern
Capstone states-
attempt to capture and control the energy and wealth of society
o Could be much more powerful by working w/ merchants rather than vs them
Vision of nation itself as nationalist Movements succeed, internal debate over what nation it should be- secular? Islam, Jewish state, Christian?

ex) Mustapha Kemal=
“father of the Turks” for Turkey to compete, it must make Islam a private religion “part of being Turk is being Muslim”
Politics
means in which society maintains order- in/externally
-most societys existed without a state
-politics should not be equated with the state
1st area Agriculture developed
Mesopotamia, 10,000 years ago.
Domestication of wild grasses and wild animals, cattle and sheep.
500,000 Peking, Beijing skulls show
evidence of systematic violence
Chiefdom
formal leadership, stratified society, formal centralization/ chief
-size does not matter- better coordination makes difference
varieties of Chiefdoms
some have alliances of chiefs
-systematic redistribution of authority
monumental architechture
-greater division of labor
evolution tensions of chiefdoms-
still kin-based polity
- if you push labor too far, ultimately you provoke rebellion
The Modern State- 5th level of political intensification
a state organized around modern government bureaucracies, mass education and programs of citizenship, and deliberately organized programs of economic and social development.
-designed to compete with others globally