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91 Cards in this Set

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Massachusetts Bay Colony

Massachusetts Bay Colony was established in 1630 by Puritans who intended it to become a shining city on a hill from which the entire world would be saved through the purity of Puritanism.
Henry VIII

In 1534, Henry the 8th wanted a divorce for the sake of obtaining a son that could survive infancy.

-Church of England won't accept this; Henry the 8th creates his own church and establishes himself as its supreme leader.
Significance of Henry the 8th

-After creating the Church of England, Henry VIII gives church lands to the middle class gentry to shore up their support.

This gentry, the Puritans, were experiencing status resentment, and aimed this resentment at the Church of England.
John Winthrop

-was the first governor of Massachusetts in 1630 and wrote the Arbella Sermon/A Modell of Christian Charity
-First governor of Massachusetts

-says Mass is a shining city on a hill and that they must be knit together as one man.
Significance of John Winthrop

-Created the ideal of social organicism that would, in later generations, create enormous tensions and conflict.(Salem Village)

-"Shining City" reference paves the way for the modern idea of American Exceptionalism

-Medieval View of society in which nothing ever changes

-The city of man should perfectly reflect the city of God.

Significance of Static Worldview

-50 percent of Puritans were Parish Gentry, Lawyers and Merchants--and began to challenge Aristocrats for power. Creates enormous social tension that contributes to Puritans leaving England for Massachusetts.
John Calvin

-created a rigid form of Protestanism that taught predestination--a belief that every event in history is pre-determined by God and that no one has control over whether they go to heaven or hell.
Significance of John Calvin

-Puritans strongly believed in the teachings of Calvinism, and ordered their lives around the challenge of finding out whether they were saved or doomed.
Elect is a puritan term for

-those who God selected before time for being saved.
Covenant of Grace is

-a contract that says God is benevolent towards His creatures and that God must have volutarily circumscribed his powers and decided to be rational in dealing with Humans.
Significance of the Covenant of Grace

-The Covenant of Grace promised Puritans that if they worked hard enough to obtain salvation, they will be saved.
To obtain the Covenant of Grace one had to

-realize they were a groveling worm in the face of God, and had to prepare constantly by praying, reading the Bible, talking about religion, going to meetings, etc.
Visible Church is the

-Church made up of the elect
Invisible Church is the

-church made up of those who were truly saved and would be in heaven for all time.

-The invisible church and the visible church may or may not be composed of the same people.
Roger Williams

-was kicked out of Massachusetts Bay in the 1630s because he could not stand what he called hypocrites--people who pretended to be saved but were actually doomed.
Anne Hutchinson

In the 1630s, Anne Hutchinson said that ministers have no right to determine whether people are saved or unsaved and that individuals are the only ones who know if they are saved or unsaved.

-Hutchinson said she was saved because God spoke to her directly.
Significance of Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams

-The lives of Hutchinson and Williams represent the conflict between social cohesion and individual identity, and, in addition, they made progress in breaking down the rigid social control of the time.
Max Weber

-German sociologist who said that Protestant work ethic was very strong.
Organic Metaphor/Social Organicism

The Organic Metaphor/Social Organicism originated in 1630 from the Arabella sermon saying that society shoudl be knit together as one organism.

The Organic Metaphor causes great social tension when society is no longer able to act as one organism.
Arminian Heresy

-the belief that by doing good works, you can obtain salvation.
Status Anxiety

-when Massachusetts was founded, most Puritans were of the same socioeconomic status. Yet, after a few generations, some Puritans were falling in stature while others were rising.

-Creates Tension known as Status Anxiety.
Errand in Wilderness

-Perry Miller was a historian of the Puritans from 1930-1960
who said that Puritans originally came to the New World for their purpose as God's chosen people.

-Yet, there is a gradual switch from God's errand to their own economic errand.
Declension is the

-switch from God's errand to the individuals errand, and is referred to as declension to describe the decline of Puritan society.

-also known as "From God to cod."
Synod is

-a governing body of all the churches in Massachusetts. Synods formed when there was a problem such as grandchildren that never became members of the church.

The Half-Covenant was a covenant created in the 1660s by the Synod that allowed children to be reconciled with the church by becoming half-members of the church.
The Synod addressing the 8 grievances of the People.


1. A great and visible decay of the power and Godliness of the people.

2. Pride of the Individual as a violation of social cohesion

3. Increase of Sin, uncharitable conduct

4.Increase of swearing and sleeping in sermons.
Next 4 Grievances Addressed


5. Sabbath Breaking. Outburst of depravity at sundown

6. Decay of Family Discipline

7. Increase of Lying, breaking of contracts

8. Growing Number of Lawsuits.
People are not knit together as one organism.
King Phillip's War

In 1676, King Phillip's War tried to wipe out all of the white settlers and was seen by Puritans as an affliction sent by God.
King William's War

In 1690, War breaks out between England and France. Mass sends army to Quebec and is defeated. This defeat is seen as punishment by God.
English Civil War

From 1640-1660, Puritans who reamined in England fought the Crown and won--thus making England a Puritan nation. This causes Puritans in Massachusetts to question their purpose.
Jeremiad Sermon

-popular type of sermon that attempted to rededicate Puritans to the organic social goal.

-Says if Puritans rededicate themselves they can be the shining city on a hill for the greater glory of God and that whatever calamity is threatening them will be taken away.
Richard Mather

Richard Mather was a
minister who was dismissed from ministry in England for being too strident a Puritan and became a minister in Massachusetts in the 1630s.

SIGNIFICANCE: Rational Charity
Rational Charity

Rational Charity is the ministerial philosophy created by Richard Mather that said it is better to exclude 100 true saints than to include 1 sinner in the congregation.
Increase Mather

From the 1660s to the early 1700s, Increase Mather was the leading minister in Massachusetts, yet did not know whether he himself was saved.

-SIG: at the end of his life, Mather gave up hope of a holy common wealth and focused singularly on the New Jerusalem.
Cotton Mather

In the 1690s, Cotton Mather was an important leader in Salem Village and was even more racked by anxiety over his salvation than his father was.

SIG: Wrote a book called "Bonificius," and was willing to compromise with the real world and accomodate secularism in his books.

-written by Cotton Mather in 1710.

-Approaches Arminian Heresy as he tries to teach people how to lvie a good life.
Frederick Jackson Turner

Frederick Turner wrote his "Frontier Thesis," in 1893 that said that the Frontier was a way to let off social steam and that Americans are rugged individualists and have "go-getterness" to them due being molded by the frontier experience.

-SIG: Perry Miller rebuffs this essay by saying that Puritans, not geography, determined why Americans are rugged individualists.
Boyer and Nissenbaum

-Authors of Salem Possessed, 1974

-Book chronicling how Puritans of Salem Village accused one another of Witchcraft and systematically killed a large number of people.

SIG: Shows how Puritans were reacting to the increasing social and economic divides and changes of the times.
Demos says that

-essentially, teenage girls who were going into puberty attacked older women due to the fact that they were cut off from breastfeeding at too early an age.
Samuel Parris

Samuel Parris was the minister of Salem Village during the Witchcraft episode of 1692. He insisted on being paid, having land, and having free firewood placed on his doorstep by every individual of the community.

SIG: This is like the deference the serf shows to his master. He felt he had risen above the commercial kniving that had once consumed him. This causes great division in the community.
John Putnam

-leader of the Putnam family
-Lived in Salem Village from the early 1640s to 1676.

SIG: His three sons Thomas, Nathaniel and John were instrumental in the proceedings of the Salem Witchcraft Trials and the protection of Samuel Parris.
John Porter

-founder of the Porter Family.
-lived in Salem Village from the early 1640s to 1676.

SIG: His three sons Joseph, Benjamin, and Israel were ardently opposed to the Witchcraft trials and the ministry of Samuel Parris.
Ann Putnam

-daughter of Thomas Putnam Jr., was among the most active of the afflicted girls.
Porter Family Geographic Significance

-The Porters had easy access to the roadways and water routes that connected Salem Village with Salem Town, and, in some instances, they actually controlled these arteries.
Putnam Family Geography

-The Putnam lands, by contrast, were farther to the west and had large tracts of land in the northwest part of the village. They were much more isolated from Salem Town than the Porters, and their economic interests were not as diversified as the Porters.
As the Putnams bought more land,

-they did so in the interior of the village and became landlocked and unable to break free from their complete dependenceo on farming as a means of living.
The Porters, on the other hand,

-continued to strengthen their ties to the commercial elements of Salem Town by marrying influential men of the town and by continuing to participate in Town Politics.
The Porters became like the

-big corporation taking over the entire community and using it for their benefit.
Purtian's Feelings on Success

-Puritans felt you had to be a part of a community, but you had to strive as an individual for success. Success meant God's favor in your life.
People like the Putnams were striving,

-but not having any success. Since they were not having success, they felt as though they did not possess God's favor.
The Putnams begin to think that

-the devil is helping the Porters because the 1st generations of the Putnams and Porters were equal, yet the 2nd and 3rd generations are increasingly different.
The Porters and Putnams were known as


-Today, these factions might be known as Political Parties, but, in the Puritan era of organicism, there was no belief in there being seperate parties with different viewpoints.

-Founded by Quakers in 1681 as a Holy Experiment designed to create the perfect society.

SIG: Quakers are peculiarly unprepared to run a colony because they are so unwilling to compromise.

Quakers arose between 1640 and 1653 and have a very simple theology a poorer background than that of the Puritans.

SIG: Very simple government made it easy for their beliefs to become so rigid that they cannot effectively govern.
George Fox

George Fox was the founder of the Quakers who experienced lightning-like illumination from God in the 1640s.

SIG: He believed so strongly in what he experienced that he preached to lower classes of people--thus allowing Quakerism to rapidly grow.
Inner Light

Inner Light was the key doctrine of Quakerism that was believed to exist in every man, woman, and child from every nation on Earth.

Inner Light was the spark of divinity that must be awakened in every individual.

SIG: For the very first time, nobody was damned, everyone was potentially among the elect. No need for priests, Baptism, Communion, or Sacrements. Women could also preach.

Osmosis was the Quaker form of meetings in which everyone comes together, meditates, has one person say something, they all sit down, and then someone else says something. They do this until they reach a consensus.

-Quakers had a large monthly meeting, even larger Quarter meeting, and the Annual Meeting was the largest and took place in London.
Joseph Cole and Thomas Curston

Joseph Cole and Thomas Curston were two men who, in the mid-1600s, walked from Virginia to Massachusetts to preach Quakersim in Massachusetts. They were arrested and sent out of the colony.

In 1657, one of them began speaking in Salem Town.
Mary Dyer

Mary Dyer was Quaker Missionary from Rhode Island who went to Massachusetts from 1657-1659 went to preach Quakerism. The first time, Mass authorities hung Cole and Curston but let Dyer live. The second time, they hung her for real.

SIG: Despite showing the religious tensions of the day, it was significant that a female would have the audacity to preach in what was a firmly patriarchal society.
William Penn

William Penn was the man who, in 1682, asked King George II for a large tract of land in the New World to dispose of the Quakers in England.

Penn saw Pennsylvania as a Holy Experiment and as a means of enriching himself.

In 1640, Quakers refuse to help England fight Spain and France due to their uncompromising belief in non-violence.

SIG: This pacifism eventually convinced all Quakers to withdraw from political offices and thus lose a large part of their political power.

-In 1723-1725, Quakers refused to swear oaths out of respect for the Lord.

SIG: Quakers could eventually be excused from the swearing of oaths. This also shows how the refusal to compromise can pose some significant challenges.

-Pennsylvania was judged to be the most American of the colonies due its open acceptance of Scotts-Irish, Presbyterians, Quakers, people like Ben Franklin and others.

Virginia was founded in 1607 and was the first permanent English settlement in North America.

The Purpose of the Virginia Colony was to make people rich. People went to Virginia to get rich and relax. Work for themselves and not for others.

SIG: Today, average Americans are highly competitive, individualistic, and want to get rich.

The first town founded in current day Virginia. 1607.

SIG: Jamestown, like the towns to follow it in Virginia, was not created for religious purposes but for economic purposes.

The main cash crop of early Virginians.

SIG: Tobacco causes Virginia planters to import slaves and to be constantly in debt to people in England. Always hoping next cash crop would pay off debt.
Indentured Servants

Servants who would guarantee seven years of their labor to anyone who would pay for their passage to the new world.
Date:1600s to 1700s.

SIG: Many Indentured Servants would escape as soon as they got to America and try to start up their own farms. Causes Virginians to import slaves instead.
Wild Bachelors

With no families and no civilizing influence of women, there was a fear among many English that society was disentigrating.

SIG: The independent lives people were leading in Virginia violated the medieval sense of community--social organicism.
Bacon's Rebellion

In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon leads a group of Western farmers in a rebellion that resulted in the temporary seizure of Williamsburg and the demanding of more government protection from Indians.

SIG: Bacon's Rebellion taught people that they needed slaves to harvest their crops more efficiently--causes a sharp increase in the number of slaves imported to the colonies.
Virginia Slaves

The first slaves arrived in Virginia in 1619. The first slaves could go free at a certain point.

SIG: Eventually, African slaves became quite numerous, and, 70-80 years later, slavery began to be associated with race.
Charles Woodmason

Woodmason was a clergy member who tried to convert the backwoods people of Virginia. He talks of people in the backwoods having concubines, having never heard the Lord's prayer or been in church, and speaks of torture among the backwoods people.

SIG: Contributes to view of backwoods people as out-of control savages. This creates tension that lasts all the way to the Revolutionary War.

From 1619 to the mid 1800s, slaves were imported from Africa to Virginia. Slaves replaced indentured servants as a more reliable form of labor.

SIG: Virginians justified the enslavement of blacks by telling themselves that blacks were an inferior race of people that lacked the education and Christian upbringing of whites. Whites could "civilize" blacks while at the same time casting all of their anxieties on them.

New Englanders and others from England accused southerners of being lazy. Southerners did not work as much as NEs because they did not have the Calvinist religion and the climate was much too warm for all-day activities.

SIG: Southerners import slaves to do their work for them. Southerners also could project their own feelings of laziness onto their slaves.
Brattle Street Church

Thomas Brattle and John Leverett created the Brattle Street Church in 1698 specifically for the wealthy elite. This church had a focus on rationality and got rid or such requirements as confirming your salvation with the minister and deacon of a church.

SIG: New Emphasis is put on God's rationality in dealing with humans and humans are given more freedom over their success or failure.
Visible Sanctity

In Visible Sanctity, if a person lived as a saint, and God showered them with blessings, that person could join the Brattle Street Church.
Isaac Newton

In the the mid 1600s to early 1700s, Isaac Newton said that the cosmos is a static, mechanistic machine with laws that carry on forever. Created laws of gravity/cause and effect.
SIG: Newton's findings suggested that, by observing nature, it was possible for humanity to discover the laws of nature. This, in turn, took God out of the human equation.
Clockwork Universe

Clockwork Universe is the belief that the universe was made by God for us to figure out how it works.

SIG: This means that God is no longer necessary. Nature is controlled by a machine that God made and God's mind is just as large as ours. Therefore, we, too, can create a universe.
Philip Pfreneau

Wrote "On the Uniformity of Nature," and claimed that "All is order and All is Right."

Tabula Rasa is a term created by John Locke in the late 1600s that means "blank slate." John Locke questioned the Puritan doctrines of depravity and predestination by saying that humans are born neutral and are the products of their collective experiences.

SIG: If you think of humans as neutral, it changes the way you think. Humans are more responsible for their lives. God gives humans more power as he removes himself from their lives.
The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was an 18th century Philosophical Movement orginating in Europe that encouraged a more rational view of God and a more mechanical view of the universe.
Benjamin Coleman

Benjamin Coleman, in 1698, was the first minister of the Brattle Street Church and spoke of reasonable things in his sermons and used scientific examples to make his points.

SIG: His sermons aided in empowring people and taking power away from God.
Great Awakening

The Great Awakening began in Northampton, Massachusetts in 1735. It began as a response against declension and the new, liberal theologies being espoused in such places as the Brattlestreet Church. It spread rapidly because of its emphasis on emotional, not intellectual, relations with God.

SIG: The Great Awakening marked the end of established churches and the begining of denominationalism. This, in turn, leads to individual conscience and choice.
Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards was the minister of Northampton Massachusetts in 1735. In his sermons, he emphasized God's working in the human heart, not the mind, and that God's grace was the only thing keeping sinners out of hell.

SIG: Edwards led the Great Awakening with his emphasis on an emotional relationship with God and his dramatic sermons that emphasized God's saving grace for sinners.
Sinners in the Hands of Angry God

Sermon delivered by Jonathan Edwards in 1741. Emphasized God's saving grace and how it would save them, if they allowed it to, from the fires of hell.

SIG: These types of sermons caused the Great Awakening to spread like wildfire throughout the colonies.
George Whitefield

In 1739, George Whitefield wanted to create an orphanage in Georgia. He was best known as a powerful, emotional evangelist that stirred up revivalism all throughout the colonies.

SIG: By traveling all throught the colonies, Whitefield helped to reach places that had not yet been touched by the revival and to keep the revivalist fervor going in places where it had already started.
Gilbert Tennet

In 1742, Gilbert Tennet was a lay preacher--a preacher not trained as a formal minister--who preached "On the Danger of an Unconverted Ministry." This sermon attacked the Calvinist theology by questioning whether the clergy were really saved. Encouraged every individual to choose a minister for himself or herself and not to pay taxes to the church.

SIG: Tennet's teachings deepened the divide between awakened churches and the unawakened churches. These divisions would last until the Revolutionary War.
James Davenport

In the 1740s, James Davenport preached by using sexually explicit characterizations of his relationship with Christ. Davenport worried about unconverted ministers.

SIG: Davenport showed the emotional extremes to which some in the Great Awakening experienced and believed in.
New Lights

New Lights was a term for churches that had embraced the emotional and doctrinal changes that the Great Awakening had brought about.
New Lights are poorer and more socially marginal than Old Lights.

SIG: During the American Revolution, New Lights became the main source of troops for the Continental Army.
Old Lights

Old Lights was the term for Churches that resisted the changes of the Great Awakening. Old Lights were typically more socially conservative and wealthy.

SIG: During the American Civil War, many Old Lights became Tories.
David Rittenhouse

In the mid 1700s, David Rittenhouse created the house of Orrery, a play on Newton's clockwork universe.

SIG: An orrery is a mechanical device that represents the relative motions and positions of the planets and moons in a solar system. This gives further proof of the universe working as a mechanistic machine, and thus attempts to take God further out of the human equation.