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62 Cards in this Set

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What was the first English settlement in America?
The London Company established the first permanent English settlement in 1607 at Jamestown, Virginia.
What major religious groups settled in the original thirteen colonies?
Puritans settled Massachusetts, Roman Catholics settled Maryland, Quakers settled Pennsylvania, and Anglicans settled primarily the southern colonies.
Why was Rhode Island established?
Puritan intolerance for dissent led to the creation of Rhode Island, a colony that allowed religious freedom.
What was the last of the original thirteen colonies?
Georgia, the last of the thirteen colonies, was founded as a haven for debtors and a buffer between Spanish and English colonies.
What was the Great Awakening?
The Great Awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm that swept through the colonies from the late 1730s to the 1760s. It was characterized by emotionalism and individualism. The Great Awakening led to the creation of several new religious groups and strengthened the beliefs in religious freedom.
Why did the English go to war against the French and Indians in 1754?
A struggle for control of the Ohio Valley started the French and Indian War, a war in which France lost its empire in North America.
What caused the American Revolution?
After the French and Indian War ended in 1763 the English government attempted to regulate and tax the colonies to pay for the war. These policies sparked protests by the colonists that led to the American Revolution in 1775.
When did Americans declare independence from England?
After a year of fighting for the "rights of Englishmen" and "no taxation without representation" Americans declared their independence from England. Independence was inspired in large part by Thomas Paine's pamphlet "Common Sense". The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson.
What significant battle led to the American victory over English forces?
An American victory at Saratoga, New York, inspired the French to actively help Americans. The American Revolution ended in 1781 when American forces led by Goerge Washington defeated English Troops at Yorktown, VA.
What is significant about the Treaty of Paris in 1783?
England recognizes the independence of the United States.
What were the Articles of Confederation?
The Articles of Confederation provided the United States with its first written constitution. Under the Articles of Confederation the central government had no power to tax, to regulate commerce, to raise an army, or to enforce its laws. Each state had one vote in the Confederation Congress and it took a unanimous vote to amend the Articles of Confederation. In short, the Articles of Confederation created a weak central government that many American leaders wanted to strengthen.
Christopher Columbus expedition, 1492
Columbus unknowingly discovers a "new world".
Jamestown, 1607
The first permanent English settlement in America.
House of Burgesses, 1619
First representative assembly America, established in Virginia.
Africans brought to North America, 1619
Arrived in Virginia aboard a Dutch ship. Originally were indentured servants.
Mayflower Compact, 1620
Stated that the purpose of their government would be to frame "just and equal laws... for the general god of the colony." Set a basis for a government. It was an important step in Democracy.
Massachusetts founded, 1630
Settled by the Puritans. It was a royal charter colony.
Pennsylvania founded, 1681
Settled by the quakers; William Penn claimed Pennsylvania was his "holy experiment".
John Peter Zenger trial, 1735
An editor who wrote an article criticizing the Governor of New York. Charged with libel. Found not guilty. Freedom of the Press is established loosely from this. A proveable statement may be published without fear of punishment.
Great Awakening begins, 1740
Great Awakening brought about strong individualism and emotionalism. New religious groups were created.
French and Indian War, 1754-1763
French vs. British. Begain in Ohio River Valley. Indians allied with the French. British wins and French loses whole American empire. The Americans are taxed as a result of this war.
Proclamation of 1763
British banned all settlement west of Appalachian Mountains. Americans ignored the law and settled west.
Stamp Act, 1765
Most direct tax paid to British on 54 different items: written and legal documents, playing cards, dice, newspapers etc. The colonies ptitioned the act and it was repealed.
Declaratory Act, 1766
Parliament affirmed its right as the supreme legislature of the British Empire.
Townshend Acts, 1767
Tax on imported goods such as glass, paper products, paints and eventually a tea tax.
Boston Massacre, 1770
British redcoats fire on a group of people gathered outside the Boston Customs House, killing 5 people. Known as the symbol of British tyranny.
Boston Tea Party, 1773
Bostonian Sons of Liberty attacked a British ship and dumped tea into the harbor.
Intolerable Acts, 1774
British closed down the Boston port. **Passed as a result of the Boston Tea Party.** Quartering Act--Housing British soulders. Shut down town meetings.
First Continental Congress, 1774
56 delegates met in Philadelphia to establish the declaration of colonial rights in September 1774. Colonies wanted rights to do their own work. Articles of Association
Battle of Lexington and Concord, 1775
April 19th- The first armed conflict of the US war of Independence. It was fought in Massachusetts after British troops tried to sieze supplies in Concord.
Second Continental Congress, 1775
1775-1781. Met because the first Continental Congress hadn't worked. Wrote the Declaration of Indepence in 1776.
Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
Challenged the authority of the British government. The first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
Declaration of Independence, 1776
The document, written by Thomas Jefferson, recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.
Battle of Saratoga, 1777
Fought near Schuylerville, NY. Defeat of British army under Burgayne by Americans under H. Gates. Ended British plans to cut New England off from the rest of the states and encouraged French assistance.
Treaty of Alliance, 1778
Between America and France. The two help each other in the event of British attack. Neither country would make amends with London until America's independence was recognized. Beneficial for only 5 years. Came about after Saratoga.
Battle of Yorktown, 1781
A victory by Americans and French led by Washington, Lafayette and Rochambeau over Cornwallis. Cornwallis surrenders and the British government negotiates an end to the American Revolution.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Great Britain formally acknowledged the United States's independence and set the US borders, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River, and from Canada to the Florida border.
John Smith
Helped the North American settlement survive. *Jamestown's real leader.* Forced to return to England in 1609 due to injury.
Roger Williams
Guaranteed separation of church and state and religious freedom in Rhode Island. Kicked out of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
John Winthrop
The puritan's first governor
William Penn
A quaker; established Pennsylvania with land given to him by King Charles II.
Jonathan Edwards
Sought to revive Puritan visions. Going to church wasn't enough. Leader of The Great Awakening.
1763. Helped capture British forts in the French and Indian War. United Indian tribes. He was from Ottowa Tribe.
Pilgrim (separatist)
Independent congregations. Fled from religious prosecution.
Settled in Massachusetts. No tolerance for dissent, which led to the creation of Rhode Island. Going to church was a must.
Great Migration, 1630-1640
Large wave of 20,000 Englishmen [Puritans] to the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Settled in Pennsylvania. Religious group prosecuted in England for their beliefs. Pacifists - Against war and killing.
Middle passage
The voyage that brought enslaved Africans to West Indies and then to North America.
Indentured Servant
A worker on a temporary contract for passage, shelter and/or sustenance.
The economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and power with gold and riches and establishing a favorable balance of trade.
Sam Adams
Leader of the Sons of Liberty. Called for boycotts against the British.
King George III
The king during the American Revolution and the colonization of America.
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence.
George Washington
Led the American army. First president of the United States
Marquis de Lafayette
Joined Washington's staff at Valley Forge. Led a command in VA.
Charles Cornwallis
British commander. Surrenders at Battle of Yorktown. Captured Charles Town, SC.
salutary neglect
England relaxes the enforcement of laws for colonies in exchange for the colonies' continued loyalty.
triangular trade
Trade system between Africa, England/Europe, The West Indies and North American colonies. The Caribbean traded sugar to New England, which traded rum to Africa in exchange for slaves, which went to the Caribbean.
Writs of assistance
Massachusetts, 1751, Acts of Trade. Smuggling becomes common. Writs soon were issued to search not only businesses and organizations, but private homes. James Otis said this violated natural rights.
A person who loves, supports and defends his or her own country and its interests with devotion. Loyalty to the colonies.
Colonists who supported British government during the American Revolution.
Belief in the existence of a God on the evidence of reason and nature only, with rejection of supernatural revelation.