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25 Cards in this Set

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What happened on July 13, 1934?
Adolf Hitler delivered a powerful speech (before the Reichstag: the German House of Reps) in which he justified & took full responsibility for his orders to murder (shot/stabbed) members of his own political party, who stood in the way of his rise to power.
What was the current social situation in America before 1934?
The effects and suffering (in money/lives) caused by the Great Depression & WW1 convinced Americans to be preoccupied with their own policies & to stay out of Europe's problems.
What was the Good Neigbor policy?
In 1933, President Roosevelt created this in order to make the U.S. a "good neighbor" to the countries in the hemisphere & to support nonintervention among nations (like in the internal affairs of Latin America).
Describe Mussolini's rise in Italy.
After WWI, Italian soldiers could not find jobs & Italy was in economic chaos. So, Benito Mussolini promised a change. He called himself, "Il Duce (the leader)" & challenged the Italians to join him in restoring the shattered economy & regaining power in the Mediterranean. He gathered together the "fascists" and became a "totalitarian" dictator.He brought energy & discipline to Italian society with government/economic/social programs (trains ran on time; 400 new bridges built).By May 1936, Mussolini & his troops controlled Ethiopia (African nation).
Who are "fascists?"
Followers of a political philosophy that preached that the nation & the race were more important the individual.
What is a "totalitarian?"
A dictator that completely controls all aspects of Italian life.
Describe Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
As Germany struggled through the troubled times after WWI, Hitler transformed a tiny worker's party into the "National Socialist German Worker's Party" which later became known as the "Nazi party." Hitler emphasized that by eliminating divisions of social classes within Germany, the Nazis would make the German people strong & united. Hitler also said those not of the "Aryan" or Germanic race were to blame for Germany's economic problems (for betraying Germany in WWI).
How did Hitler build the Third Reich (Nazi dictatorship)?
As Depression struck Germany (1929), German government was unable to find jobs for 6 million unemployed workers. Hitler challenged the Germans to rebuild their economy & revive their honor by bringing him to power.

Feburary 1933-Hitler persuaded Paul von Hindenberg (German President) to suspend most German civil rights. A month later (March 1934), he convinced the Reichstag to give him the power to make laws without its consent.

June 1934-he demanded that members of the military swear personal allegiance to him.

1936-he sent troops to Germany's Rhineland (eastern border of France).
How were Hitler & Mussolini similar?
Both were 2 powerful leaders that desired to expand their borders; both seized new lands at will. They formed an alliance in 1936.
Describe the Spanish Civil War?
In 1931, a parliamentary gov. replaced the Spanish monarchy. General Francisco Franco with pro-monarch rebel troops attempted to overthrow the gov. Mussolini became involved b/c he & Franco strongly opposed communism. Mussolini sent airplanes & Italian soldiers; Hitler sent Franco bombers/troops. The Soviet Union supported the Republicans who fought for the elected gov.
Describe Appeasing Hitler in Munich?
In March 1938, Hitler proclaimed that Austria was part of Germany. 6 months later, Hitler's army occupied the Sudetenland region of Czechoslavia.

To avoid war, the leaders of Great Britain & France adopted a policy of "appeasement." At a conference in Munich in September 1938, Neville Chamberlain & Edouard Daladier agreed not to oppose Hitler's move against the Sudetenland.
Describe how invading Poland Leads to War
Germany signed a nonaggressive pact with Soviet Union in 8/23/1939. Both secretly agreed to divide Poland between them.

In 9/1/1939, Hitler & his troops invaded & attacked Poland.
Describe Japan & its agressive militarism
Japan military leaders began a policy of territorial expansion in the '30s. Japan was poor in land for agriculture/raw materials.It depended on imports from the US for wheat, petroleum, rubber, coal, iron, & timber.So, leaders pushed to expand Japan's borders in order to become more self-sufficient.
Desribe the situation of Japan Invading Manchuria
Japan targeted the poorly defended Manchuria for abundant resources (food/raw materials/manufactured goods) & living space for Japan's surplus population.

Japan attacked Manchuria in 9/1931.

In 9/1932, Japan installed a puppet gov. called "Manchukuo."
Shutting the Open Door
The US sent small loans to the China gov. to help buy military supplies, once Japan launched a full-scale assault on China. Many Americans felt a special sympath/kinship with the Chinese.

The most important reason for American's alarm at the invasion of China: economic. The American business community saw China as a boundless market for American goods. The US asserted its "Open Door policy" that assured all countries = access to China's markets. If Japan conquered China, the US could have lost $100 million (annual cotton sales). Japan's industries would be more able to compete with American businesses for world sales.
Describe the "China Incident"
In 1937, Japanese forces moved south from Manchuria against Shangai & Nanjing, killing tens of thousands of Chinese civilians. Tokyo leaders called it the "China Incident."
America's Nonneutral Neutrality
Congress passed a series of laws, "the Neutral Acts." The laws prohibited the sale of American weapons to nations at war & tried to keep US citizens from traveling on ships belonging to warring countries. They also required that countries at war pay cash for nonmilitary trade goods (cotton/wheat). President Roosevelt signed the Neutrality Acts.

As President knew that Hitler & Mussolini were madment & treatened the nation's security, he tried to prepare for war by asking for a $1.3 billion military budget. The US would need tanks, planes, guns, etc.
What is appeasement?

What is blitzrieg?
Appeasement:a policy to keep peace.

Blitzrieg: ligtning warfare (like a swift, all-out style of attack).
Hitler denounces Treaty of Versailles.
Nazi party becomes most powerful in Germany.
Hitler becomes chancellor of the Nazi party. Hitler empowered to make laws.
Hitler abolishes office of president, declares himself the fuhrer.

1935-Mussolini's troops invade Ethiopia.

1936-Mussolini & Hitler both send troops to Spain to fight for General Franco.
Hitler occupies Austria & the Sudentenland in Czechoslovakia.
Germany & Soviet Union sign nonaggression pact. Hitler invades Poland.