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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Inescapable Foreign Connections (Aftermath of WWI)
1. Foreign Debt
2. New Government in Germany (and Austria-Hugrey)
3. The Russian Revolution
4. Germs (The Influenza Epidemic kills 25 million people worldwide)
The Russian Revolution/The Red Scare
2 Phases March (Constitutional) November (Lennin replacing Dem. with communists)
j Mitchell Palmer (mail bomb, 200 deported)
Warren J Harding
Withdrawing from progressivism
-not heroics but healing
-Americans welcome this
-Republicans camp out in national government
------progressivism has gone too far
-Doesn't want to be know for great intitiative
-Too tied in with political friends and cronnies
-------Federal gov=money, corruption
--------Teapot Dome Scandel
------------Sec. of interior allowed oil companies access to an oil reserve for $
-Harding dies in 1923 of Food Poisoning after 2/2 1/2 years in office
Calvin Coolidge
-On vacation when Harding dies
-Sworn in by his father
-1924 runs in his own right
-Policies=ideals
-The presidents job is to preserve laws
----encourages buisness, commerse
-Buisness Loans
-Disarmnent
----Kellogg-Briand Pact
-------Outlaws awr
-------Signed by 14 european countries, japan, etc.
Inagrual Adress-Calvin Coolidge
-what does he want Gov't to be?
----A peacetime army can be strong without #s
----Tax Reform (down)
----Smaller government
----Balanced budgets
----no interference with foriegn gov'ts except to relieve human suffering and S. America
----Defend current Go'c (maintain Rep. Government)
----Rule of Law
Role of women in society (1920s)
1920, right to vote, guarenteed by the 19th amendment
-people see how dedicated women have been
-increasingly large portion of electorate
-The new women (flapper)
---results from war, working, incomes, higher education, seperated from parents.
Prohibition
-Constitutional Amendment #18
-Seen as high water mark of moral reform
-Volstead Act-implimenting legislation for prohibition
-Practically not a dry nation
-Lots of money fighting prohibition
----enter Al Capone, gang culture
----Kennedy Family
-Ultimetely doesn't work
----some states (counties) remain dry
-always unpopular in democratic party
-repealed after FDR, 21st Amendment 1933
Immigration
-immigration acts passed to limit
-Immigration act of 1924
--quota of people allowed to come yearly
--#s differ from country to country
-suspition lends itself to a trial
Saccot & Vanzetti
-results from a double murder
-trial becomes the first "trial of the century"
-Persecution of immigrents?
-Historians still divided
-found guilty, are executed in 1927
-defended by ACLU
The Scopes Trial
1925
-teacher tried for teaching Evolution
-prosecuted by Williams Jennings Bryan
-Made WJB look like an idiot
-a battle of two leaders, a specticle
-inherit the wind
-scopes in convicted
-biased jury? Probably
-Dorrow lost battle, won war
1920s development of a new urban culture vs. rural (Shown in art and literature)
-Modernism
-Art-Picasso
-Books-books that question, F Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemmingway
-Poetry-T.S> Eliott (wasteland)
Jazz-either amazing or horrible
The Rise of Liesure
-Automobile (Model T ford)
-Radio
-Organized sports
-movies-The Jazz Singer
-Dance
-Pole Dancing
1928 Election
-Coolidge decides not to run again
-Herbert Hoover is a mild progressive
----believes gov't can encourage cooperation
-Democrats choose to run Al Smith
---Catholic (first ever nominated)
---Strongly opposes prohibition
-Smith Soundly defeated
Hoover becomes president, many people have invested in stock market, becomes really over-inflated
Causes of Depression
Oct. 29 1929-Black Thursday
-Day sell-off of stocks begin
-only first step, send ripples through economy
1930 things going badly
-stock market falls by half 1928-1930
-1/4-1/3 of all americans out of work
Hoover's small responses
1. Doesn't want federal welfare
2. Encourages private help
3. The Bonus Army
----group of WWI vets asking for bonuses
----Hoover denies bonuses
----sends army in to clear them out
4. Economic Discussion
--Keynesianism demand-side
----public spending to encourage demand
----borrow from future for economy in present
5. Work Programs
----Large Dam in NV
----Not enough to create difference
6. RFC (reconstrution finance coorperation)
----doesn't work
----hoover gets blamed for problems
----hoovervilles (shantytowns), hoover blankets (newspapers)
Meaning of Liberal
Changed with FDR
-Before-freedom from gov't
after-gov't should have role to give liberty
1st New Deal
FDIC
SEC
AAA
CCC
WPA
NRA
-begins as soon as FDR takes office
Banking-savings have been lost, all money taken out, forced to close.
FDIC-Federal Deposit Insurence Coorperation
-----regulates banks, insured up to 5,000$
SEC-Securities Exchange Commission
-----takes country off gold standard
AAA-Agricultural adjustment Act
-----pays farmers not to produce
CCC-Civillian Conservation Corps
-----parks, building projects
WPA-works Progress Administration
-----artists, literary, slave narratives
NRA-National Recovery Association
-----sets wages, prices, direct interference with economy, Blue Eagle, struck down in 1935
Huey Long
"Every Man Should be a King"
appealing to the little man
"share our wealth"-attempt to equalize income
-governer of Louisiana
-Assasinated before he's able to run for president
-All the Kings Men
Francis Townsend
-Doctor from CA
-Main issue-poverty among elderly
-Gov't should write checks to elderly
-very popular in mid 30s
-Townsend Clubs spring up
Father Charles Caughlin
-Catholic priest living in Detroit (radio priest)
-sermons turning anti-FDR, Anti-semetic
-Admires Facist Italy
Second New Deal
Social Security
-government funded retirement fund
-people pay in, government spends it
-Generalized government safety net
-FDR knew there was no way out
1937
Economy slips back into deep depression (Roosevelt Recession)
New Deal loses momentum
Roosevelt attempts to stack Supreme Court
-grow court, require retirement
-most people think he pushes things too far
1930s Film
-Charlie Chaplin-"the little tramp"
-production codes
-black/white-color
1930s Labor
Wagner Act
CIO
AFL/CIL
NRA-provision for unions to organize
-NRA declared constitutional
Wagner Act-National Labor Relations Act 1935
------continues protection for unions
CIO-Congress of industrial organizations
AFL/CIL-American Federalization Labor
More strikes begin to merge ethnic group, involved with the new deal
Communism 1930s
HOAAC
Communist Party USA
-takes orders from Moscow
-Confident, bold
-some intellectuals joining (many leave later)
-"the red romance"
-House on American Activities Comiteee
African American Community 1930s
-The great migration south-north
---largely settling in Urban areas
---african americans find jobs
---find persistant racism is North
---joining new deal coalition
Farmers in 1930s
confronting the Dust Bowl OK, CO, NB, TX, NM
-northern farming struggles with debt
-migration
----farmers moving west
----"the grapes of wrath"
----many people are sticking
----consider character of people moving (protestent work ethic, fundamentalism)
Religion in 1930s
contrast of mainline vs fundamentalism
church attendence in large denominations down
the religious great depression
Radio
-FDR fireside chats (political use)
-widespread, controlled by national networks
Consumption
-A Consumer's Republic-A economy built around consumption, politics, culture,
citizen consumer vs purchaser consumer
-Citizen Consumer
---responsible for safeguarding the nation
---safety for purchaser
---fair treatment of individual consumers
-continuation of progressivism
-Purchaser Consumer
---exersize purchasing power
---less political
Japan before WWII
-began expansion earlier then Germany or Italy
-Japanese army comitting War Crimes in Nan Kine
-under an emperor Hero Hino
----emperor seen as divine
----emperor has absolute power
-military very important
---has taken dramatic stance
-ToJo military leader becomes premier
-makeing connetions with Berlin
----Berline-Tokyo axis
Italy before WWII
Facism-Mousalini
---nationalistic
---not an inherent racist ideology
---celebrates strong leader
-Moussalini 1922 prime minister 1926 dictator
---starts life as socialist
---newspaper editor
---organizes facist clubs
---loads march to rome
---black shirts
Germany Nazism before WWII
race-arianism
-produces culture (Kultur)-highest development
-Jews (lowest race)
--antithesis of a healthy state
--destroy culture
-Eastern Europeans (slovic)
Space
-Lebensraum "because they are superior they have the right
-killing people to take over their land
Adolf Hitler
-born in Austria
-wants to be a painter
-signs up with German Army
-asks him to infiltrate National Socialists
----great means for political agenda
----means play for power
-hitler arrested, put on trial, broadcasted
---gets his ideas out there
---sentenced to prison
---mien kamf
-elections of 32, plurality of seats
-becomes chancellor 1933
-rieghtstog set on fire, enableing act (absolute power)
-nazism only accepted ideology
-opposision parties silenced
Europe-1935
Germany pulled out of league of nations
-Hitler rearming
-institutes draft
-announces air force
Europe-1936
-moves into rhineland
-France doesn't respond
Europe-1938
-Annexes Austria
-Hitler begins to demand west part of chezchlovakia
---chezch doesn't want to give it up
-conference called of great powers to meet in munich (Britain, Germany, Italy, France)
----consent to Hitler's demand
----Neville Chainberlin "peace in our time"
-Hitler sends army into rest of Chezch
----Finally there is outrage
----proves Hitler is not a man of his word
-Britain and France offer security to Poland
Europe-1939
-Pact between Germany and Soviets
---agree soviets will invade other half of poland, soviets can grab baltic states
-western powers declare war on Germany
Europe-1940
Germany takes over Netherlands, Belgium
-The french collapse
-chaimberlin replaced with churchhill
-1000s of men saves off darkeur
-Hitler looking at Britain
---war waged in air (english channel)
Europe-1941
Britain is not going to fall
-Hitler too ambitious
Hitler turns attention to East
-invates soviet union
US 1934
Americans disengaging from Europe
-NYE-commission for WWI "merchants of death" makes Americans less likely for war
US 35-36-37
Pass neutrality acts
-aimed at americans
-keeps american ships out of warzones
US 37-38
Tension growing in Europe
FDR begins looking at possiblity
"Cash and Carry" food and supplies offered to warring nations on cash and carry basis
US 1940
"Lend and Lease"-outdated ships to britain for long-term leases on navel bases.
peacetime draft
---2007-great move for FDR
---1940-what is FDR doing? no war!!!
Four Freedoms of Norman Rockwell
1. Speech
2. Religion
3. Want (economic understanding)
4. Fear (worldwide reduction of arms)
US-1941
Pearl Harbor
-A day that will live in infamy-FDR
-Aiming to cripple US Pac. fleet
----fails (US battleships sunk, AZ ok)
----didn't get any aircraft carriers, ship repair
----Didn't hit oil or Gas Supplies
-US declairs war on Japan
-Europe declares war on US (Honoring Japan alliance)
US-May 1942
-Phil. Fall to Japanese
-Greater East Asia Prosperity sphere-japan says
-Japan heads towards Australia, met by navel crew at Coral Sea
----first time no visual contact between sides
----draw, US looses Carrier
----Japanese Retreat
US June 1942
Midway Island
-key strategic point (half-way)
-we cracked Japanese code
-Sink all four Japanese code
Attention turns back to Europe
Late 1942
Operation Torch-into North Africa
-Rommel
-Defeated by Bernard Montgomery
-N Africa captured by Allies
US 1943
Try to head up through ITaly
-soft underbelly of Europe
-Sicily, South go easy, Rome more difficult
US June 6 1944
D-Day
-deception code name "fortitude"
-tons of messages
-saying 89 allies divisions, scotland
-troops in place throughout
-element of suprise essencial
-daylight to avoid confusion
-----crossing at night, landing in day
-attacked 76,000 tons of bombs on railroad
-bad weather caused Germans to abandon western front
-The German Army had to call superiors and ask what to do
What is the Battle of the Buldge?
May 8 1945
Offensive by Hitler
Berlin falls to the Soviets
Americans discover concentration camps
-hardened soldiars were weeping
-labor camps-western
-Extermination camps-east
-VE Day-Victory in Europe
Island Hopping
-Battle of Layte Gulf (liberates phillipeans)
-Battle of the Coral sea
-Battle of Midway
-Chester Nimitz
-Douglas MacArthur
-Iwo Jima
-Okanawa-the closest we get
----Kamakazie mission
1945
-Yalta
-FDR Dies
-Harry Truman takes over
-Hiroshima August 6 1945
-Nagasaki August 9 1945
-Final Conclusion Signed Sep 2
Results of WWII
-US out of great depression
-Federal Gov't grows
-Holocaust
-----changes the way people think about the world
-----Creates desire for Jewish Homeland (1948)
Stalin
Starvation
Political killings
Labor camps in Siberia
Homefront War stuff
-Rationing
-Price Controls
-----OPA office of price administration
------temptation for black market
-------saving out of necessity
-Truce between citizen and purchaser consumers
Soviet Union
The soviet union was an ideological enterprise and empire and should not be understood as a normal state. Hence, the goal of the Soviet Union was not nation intrest but the international triumph of communism.
Yalta (45)
Potsdam (45)
Churchhill (46)
Churchill, FDR, Stalin
-zones of occupation
-----france great britian soviets US
-----friendly to the soviet union
---------poland (2 gov'ts) free polish gov't/soviet polish gov't
-soviet doesn't want buffer states but havens for soviets
POTSDAM
-Truman apply Stalin
----clear soviets not keeping word
1946-Churchill gives important speech at Fulton MO "soviets don't desire war but fruits of war"
Marshall Plan
(George C Marshall, Truman's secretary)
Financial infusion from US to Europe
-----Germany, Italy, France, Great Britain
Checkeslovakia almost took money
Berlin Airlift
1948-1949 Success
-Allies decide to merge zones of occupation
-1948 blockade roads and railroads
-decide to ship all needs by air into West Berlin
-1949 Stalin opens roads and railroads again
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Communists take over China (1949)
Nationalists, communists (Mao Zedong)
Nationalists go to Tiawon, claim only real China
Soviets develop nucleur bomb of thier own (1949)
-soviets stole Nazi scientists and American info
----Ex Ethel and Julius Rosenburg
-----Julius worked with Atomic Bomb Project
-----Arrestted for treason, executed
NSC-68
National Security Council
-containment needs to be expanded throughout the world
-ties into American decision to go into Korea
Korea, 1950-1951
N Korea descends into S Korea
N Korea outsmarted by US
Stage 1-led by McArthur
stage 2-Amphibeous landing on inchan (Army goes to yalu river)
stage 3-Chinese begin to invade, push americans back (chinese have #s)
McArthur asks Truman for Atomic Bomb on battle field
----Truman says NO
----McArthur tries to take case to American people
----Truman relieves him of duty
-1951-Creation of demilitarized zone (still exists)
Fear of Nucleur War
School bomb drills (duck and cover)
People build bomb shelters in backyards
Congressional investigation of Hollyworrd
-Some people plead the fifth (blacklisted)
-Ronald Reagan committed to rooting out communists
Joseph Mcarthy
Argues he has a list of spys
# keeps growing
can never prove it
claims agents in the army
Whittiker Chambers
Admitted to communism in the 30s
somewhat involved in active spying
main contact, Richard Nixon
Takes comitee to pumpkin patch and brings back microfilm
Alger Hiss-state dept (GUILTY!)
Chambers writes "Witness"
Eisenhower
General in WWII (d-day), NATO
European resettlement
Philosophy fit better with republicans
Runs against Adalaide Stevenson (accused of being an intellectual, not able to connect w/american people)
Eisenhower wins convincingly
1956 rerun, Eisenhower wins again
Richard Nixon (1952)
accused of financial inproprieties
sept. Nixon adresses american public on TV
"The Checker Speech" dog
disarming speech
Eisenhower in Office
Does very little (believes in limited Gov't)
economy goes well
Foreign Policy
Ends Korean War
Continued arms race
-----hydrogen bomb
-----worried about missle gap
1956-soviet repression in Hungary
----rising tension between soviets and us
----Warsaw pact (1950) opposite of NATO
UZ spy plane shot down
Suez canal crisis (Britain, Egypt, France)
-----American pressure ends it
Cuba falls to communism (Fidal Castro)
Eisenhower
Interstate Highway system
---before, only two-lane roads
---largest public works project ever
---largely destroys railroads
---shapes settlement patterns
---creates a more mobil citizenery
Eisenhower
Civil Rights
GI benefits don't work for African Americans
---fight back with economic protests
---participation in consumer matters=citizenship
growing calls to look at rights
----armed forces intefrated
----1947 jackie robinson
----1954 Brown v Board
----------education is a right
----------14th amendment
1955
Montogomery bus boycott (victory)
-----Rosa Parks
-----Organization in Montgomery, total bus boycott
-Martin Luther King Jr (Dexter Baptist Church)
------becomes national figure
1957
Arkansas' Governer Orvil Faubus Fights Integration
-----Eisenhower calls out the national guard
1950's culture----influenced by Baby Boom, GI Bill
-Defined by neuclear families
----Ozzy & Harriet, Honeymooners, I Love Lucy etc.
----children very important (Leave it to Beaver)
--------families become more child-centered
TV
---pulls the country together
Buisness
---Many people employed by big buisness
---organizational structure transfered from Army
Culture of conformity
----living spaces
----new suberbs
----Levittown
Voices of Challenge-Beatniks
-Poets, Allen Ginsberg
-questioning conformity
-Arthur Miller "Death of a Salesmen"
Voices of Challenge-Neo-Evangelicalism
-Underground, reentering public life
1942-national association of Evengelicals
Ockenga (pastor in Boston)
Carl Henry (intellectual voice)
Billy Grahm
---originally an evangelist for "Youth for Christ"
---President for NWC 1948-1952
---------youngest college pres. in country
---------want to be out preaching
-becomes figurehead for Neo-Evengelicals
"Christianity Today"
Fuller Seminary
Early 1960s
much more in line with 50s
Later 1960s
-Much more pessimistic (disillusionment)
-rebellion, change, hippy movement
-foreign affairs not positive
-WWII moving to positions of leadership
-Baby boomers high schoolers/college student
Election 1960s
Eisenhower (nixon)-Republicans
JFK-Democrats
----war hero (pt boat 109)
----roman catholic
----moves secularism forward
----has new medium of TV
--------first televised debates
-squeakes out wins in illinois and texas
Kennedy wins
1961 JFK gives inagruel address
-JFK recognizes generational switch
-continued comittment to containment
-Cold War & kennedy
----1961 krushev gives order for Berlin Wall
--------symbol of Cold War
--------"I am a Jelly Donut"
-JFK supports invasion of Cuban refugees @ bay of pigs
October 1962
-Oct 1962-cubans have started to construct missle sites (Nucleur warheads)
-cuban missle crises
-----blockage of island
-----nuclear war real possibility
-----13 days
-----Ships turns around @ last moment
----------US warheads taken out of Europe, Cuba
Nov. 1963
Assasinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
--Kennedy more pop. in death then in life
-------Myth of camelot
Robert McNamara (The Fog of War)
#1 Empathize with enemy
"Kennedy trying to keep us out of war."
#2 Rationality will not save us
"Nucleur power and Human fallibility=destruction of nations
#3-There's somthing beyond one's self
#4-Maximize efficiency
#5-proportionality should be a guideline in war
-----huge amounts of cities were firebombed (57%)
"we were behaving as war criminals"
"What makes it immoral if you lose and not immoral if you win?"
#6 Get the data
#7 Belief and seeing are both often wrong
Tonkin Gulf Resolution (gave president power of war)
#8-be prepared to reexamine your reasoning
----if we can't convince nations of similar values of reasoning, we should be ready to rexamine them
#9-in order to do good you may have to engage yourself in evil
#10-Never say never
Watergate, Gerald Ford becomes President
-confronted with negatives nation/post-Nixon
-pardons nixon
-----people hated that
-----Nixon hadn't been convicted yet
-inflation
------whip inflation now (WIN)
1976 Defeated by James Earl Carter
-not much experience beyond governer of Georgia
-economic problems
-----gas rationing
-----"stagflation"
-----goes on tv to say "crises of confidence"
Carter-Foreign Problems
Foreign problems
-----weak stance towards soviets
-----afganisten vs. soviets
1980 summer-boycotts olympics
----weakness in Iran
-Revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini
-Iranian student radicals take hostiges
------one now president of Iran
------attempts one rescue mission
------held for over a year
1980 Reagan Wins Handily
Iranians return hostages
----returns sense of optimism
---------optimistic about country (American people)
----Suspitious of liberalism
----attacks great society
-symbolized ascent of conservative movement
Reagan Domestic Policy
-Tax Cuts
-----supply-side economics
-more people out of work
83-84 economy going well
84 "it's morning again"
Foreign Policy
-Money in military
-strong stance against soviets
----focus of evil in modern world
----visits Germany "Tear down this wall"
----sends marines to Granada
----Funds contras in Niceragua
----spends money on "star wars" SDI (strategic defense initiative)
-Bankrupts soviet union
----fulfillment of policy of containment
HUGE CHANGE OF ATTITUDE FROM 1980-1988
George HW Bush
oversees disinigration of Eastern block (1989)
Berlin Wall Falls
the Velvet Revolution
End of the Cold War
Desert Storm
-Sadaam invades Kuiwait
-100 hours offense Army stops (war ends, peace treaty)
-recession hits, bush gets blame
-----lost support of base
-----"read my lips, no new taxes"
-----------signs tax increase into law
Bill Clinton
Runs on "It's the economy, stupid"
entrence of Ross Perot
only wins 46% of public vote
90% similar to 1920s (vacation from history)
----enjoy tech boom
----lack of seriousness
September 11, 2001
-Americans forced to confront Nation's responsiblility
-Retalliation against Al Queda
-------afghanistan
-------Iraq
GW Bush
-Foreign looks like Woodrow Wilson
-Reagan's optimism
US has changed many ways, still continuity
-rights and liberty
-role of religion
-place of individual
-americans palce in world