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35 Cards in this Set

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neoconservatism
an ideology that advocates military over diplomatic solutions in foreign policy and is less concerned with restraining government activity in domestic politics than traditional conservatives
libertarianism
an ideology whose advocates believe that government should take a "hands-off" approach in most matters
socialism
an ideology that advocates economic equality, theoretically achieved by having the government or workers own the means of production (businesses and industry)
conservatism
an ideology that emphasizes preserving tradition and relying on community and family as mechanisms of continuity in society
liberalism
an ideology that advocates change in the social, political, and economic realms to better protect the well-being of individuals and to produce equality within society
political ideology
integrated system of ideas or beliefs about political values in general and the role of government in particular
majority rule
the idea that, in a democracy, only policies with 50 percent plus one vote are enacted, and only candidates that win 50 percent plus one vote are elected
consent of the governed
the idea that, in a democracy, the government's power derives from the consent of the people
property
anything that can be owned
capitalism
an economic system in which the means of producing wealth are privately owned and operated to produce profits
liberty
the most essential quality of American democracy; it is both the freedom from governmental interference in citizens' lives and the freedom to pursue happiness
political culture
the people's collective beliefs and attitudes about government and political processes
indirect democracy
sometimes called a representative democracy, a system in which citizens elect representatives who decide policies on behalf of their constituents
direct democracy
a structure of government in which citizens discuss and decide policy through majority rule
social contract theory
the idea that individuals possess free will, and every individual is equally endowed with the God-given right of self-determination and the ability to consent to be governed
popular sovereignty
the theory that government is created by the people and depends on the people for the authority to rule
natural law
the assertion that standards that govern human behavior are derived from the nature of humans themselves and can be universally applied
social contract
an agreement between people and their leaders in which the people agree to give up some liberties so that their other liberties are protected
divine right of kings
the assertion that monarchies, as a manifestation of God's will, could rule absolutely without regard to the will or well-being of their subjects
limited government
government that is restricted in what it can do so that the rights of the people are protected
constitutionalism
government that is structured by law, and in which the power of government is limited
authoritarianism
system of government in which the government holds strong powers but is checked by some forces
totalitarianism
system of government in which the government essentially controls every aspect of people's lives
democracy
government in which supreme power of governance lies in the hands of its citizens
oligarchy
government in which an elite few hold power
monarchy
government in which a member of a royal family, usually a king or a queen, has absolute authority over a territory and its government
public goods
goods whose benefits cannot be limited and that are available to all
legitimacy
a quality conferred on government by citizens who believe that its exercise of power is right and proper
naturalization
the process of becoming a citizen by means other than birth, as in the case of immigrants
citizens
members of the polity who, through birth or naturalization, enjoy the rights, privileges, and responsibilities attached to membership in a given nation
government
the institution that creates and implements policies and laws that guide the conduct of the nation and its citizens
political engagement
citizen actions that are intended to solve public problems through political means
civic engagement
individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern
efficacy
citizens' belief that they have the ability to achieve something desirable and that the government listens to people like them
politics
the process of deciding who benefits in society and who does not