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112 Cards in this Set

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what is eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis
substances, including histamine and leukotrienes, that are released during an anaphylactic reaction.
what are Leukotrienes?
biological compounds that produce allergic and inflammatory reactions.
what is sensitization?
An acquired reaction in which specific antibodies develop in response to an antigen.
what are thromboxanes?
Antagonistic prostaglandin derivatives that are synthesized and released by degranulating platelets, causing vasoconstrictin and promoting the degranulation of other platelets.
what does the Atigen -antibody response do?
It protects the body from disease by activating the immune response.
discribe an antigen?
a substance that induces the formation of antibodies.
what does the antigen-antibody reaction do
it protects the body from disease by activating the immune response.
what is a allergen
an antigen or substance causing the allergic response.
the healthy body responds to an antigen challenge through a collective defense system call what?
immunity.
what is the most extreme form of an allergic reaction called?
anaphylaxis
The antigenic agents most frequently associated with anaphylaxis are?
penicillin, stinging insects, and food.
signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis usually appear within ?
1 to 30 minutes of introduction of the antigen.
what drug should be administered to all patients with clinical signs of shock?
epinephrine 0.3 - 0.5 mg (3-5 ml 1:10,000) IV
SQ or IM epinephrine may not be effective for a patient having severe anaphylactic reactions because of:
Decreased peripheral perfusion
An antigen is a substance that produces:
Antibodies
The primary antibody affecting an anaphylactic reaction is:
IgE
The medication most commonly responsible for anaphylactic reactions is:
Penicillin
The chemical released in an anaphylactic reaction that causes rapidly increased vascular permeability and capillary and venule dilation is:
Histamine
Hypotension in an anaphylactic reaction occurs primarily as a result of:
Capillary permeability and vasodilation
During an anaphylactic reaction, urticaria may be noted on the skin, and swelling may be noted in the
Face and tongue
Medications that may be prescribed for a patient with a history of anaphylactic reactions so they may be used in an emergency may include:
Epi-Pen
Expect that a fluid bolus of up to ____________ may be needed to restore blood pressure in anaphylactic patients.
4 L
Administration of epinephrine should be
. At high doses, up to 3 to 5 mg every 3 minutes
When assessing a patient who is complaining of abdominal discomfort, you must always assess the genitalia
False
the medical term for excessive thirst is
polydipsia
By which route is gastroenteritis that is caused by bacteria most often transmitted
Oral/Fecal
the loss of glucose in the urine prevents tubular reabsorption of fluid. this is known as
Osmotic diuresis
Insulin is produced in the
Pancreas
the primary treatment for hypotension resulting from anaphylaxis is
IV Fluids
The most serious type of hernia is a (N)
Strangulated hernia
A previous exposure to an antigen that initiates an allergic response can be called
Sensitizatin
Appropriate management of a patient experiencing HHNK would include
IV fluid of NS wide open
which of the following statements is correct regarding the treatment of patients with genitourinary disorder?
All patients who complain of symptoms that last longer than 6 hours should be strongly encouraged to see a physician
Colitis can be defined as an
Inflammatory condition of the large intestine
Your patient is a 76 year old female who presents with abdominal pain and distentin and who is vomiting fecal material. Your suspect
Bawel obstructin
Pancreatitis usually presents after
Ingestion of alcohol or a large amount of food.
An allergen can be defined as
an antigen causing an allergic response
Colitis can lead to ulceratin of the intestinal mucosa
true
Melena is a term used to describe
Maroon or tarry colored stools
During an anaphylactic reaction, urticaria may be noted on the skin and swelling may be noted in the
face and tonque
An allergic reaction is
An oversensitive immune response
Medicatins that may be prescribed for a patient with history of anaphylactic reactions to use in an emergency may include
Epi-Pen
when physically assessing the shunt site, you would anticipate its most common location to be
in the inner aspect of the patient's forearm
The standard subcutaneous pediatric dose of epinephrine used in the treatment of severe anaphylaxis is
0.1 mg/kg of 1:1000 solution
which of the following best describes Kussmaul breathing
Rapid and deep
Cholecystitis that is complicated by the passage of stones into the common bile duct and the subsequent obstructin may be associated with fever, chills, and pancreatitis
true
What statements best describes the profound effect diabetic ketoacidosis has on the body
the serum insulin level is low and glucose is prohibited from entering the cells
Hernias result from
The peritoneum pushing through the abdominal musculature
The medical term for abnormally large fluid output is
Polyuria
Urticaria may be seen in the patient with an allergic reaction Urticaria is also known as
Hives
Urticaria is
caused by increased capillary permeability and leaking of fluid into the interstitial space
The primary antibody affecting an anaphylactic reactin is
IgE
How do you discribe Kussmaul breathing
Rapid and deep
Cholecystitis that is complicated by the passage of stones into the common bile duct and the subsequent obstructin may be associated with fever chills and pancreatitis
True
Which of the following statements best describes the profound effect diabetic ketoacidosis has on the body
The serum insulin level is low and glucose is prohibited from entering the cells
Hernias result from
the peritoneum pushing through the abdominal musculature
the medical term for abnormally large fluid output is
Polyuria
Urticaria may be seen in the patient with an allergic reaction urticaria is also known as
Hives
Urticaria is
Caused by increased capillary permeability and leaking of fluid into the interstitial space
The primary antibody affecting an anaphylactic reation is
IgE
signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include
Warm, dry skin and Kussmaul respirations
the primary cause of colitis is
unknown
Gastroenteritis is
an inflammation of the stomach
The primary reason epinephrine is given in severe anaphylaxis is to cause
Immediate reversal of the anaphylactic reaction
The H pylori bacterium is frequent cause of
Gastritis
What condition typically results in the development of symptoms over 12-48 hours
DKA
Type II diabetes is caused by
Decreased productin of insulin
Beta cells within the islets of Langerhans produce
Insulin
the signs and symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction usually occure within ________minutes after exposure to the antigen
1-30
symptoms of thyroid storm could also mimic an overdose of
Cocaine
Crohn's disease is
a chronic inflammatory bowel disease
Insulin is a small protein that is released by the beta cells when bolld glucose levels rise the primary functins of insulin are to
Transport glucose into the cells
Cholecystitis is frequently associated with the ingestion of
Fried and Farry foods
Localized allergic reactions are best managed with
Antihistamines
Bleeding associated with gastritis would present as a stool that is
Dark to black in color
The anatomical components of the urinary system are the
Urethra, ureters, urinary bladder, and kidneys
a common effect of Crohn's disease is
formatin of fistulas with other abdominal organs
Indications for the use of glucogon include
Hypoglycemia
the standard subcutaneous dose of epinephrine used in treatment of the adult with severe anaphylaxis is
0.3 to 0.5 mg of 1:1000 solution
Diverticulitis is caused by a sac or pouch that develops in the
colon
the cause of Crohn's disease is
Unknown
the thyroid gland produces thyroxine, which is responsible for
Regulating the basal metabolic rate
The effects of hepatitis infection include
Jaundice, Malaise, Cirrhosis
Gastritis can be defined a s
A chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa
Bleeding from ruptured esophageal varices can be expected to be
Bright red and copious
Pain associated with pancreatitis often presents as
Radiating from mid-umbilicus to the back
If needed (as in the absence of insulin) fatty acids in the liver can be metabolized and used for energy. The eventual breakdown products of fatty acids in the liver are known as
Ketone bodies
Type I diabetes is caused by
Inadequate production of insulin
a primary organ of the gastrointeatinal system is the
Stomach
The most dangerous result of an obstructed bowel is
peritonitis
Glucagon is effective in treating hypoglycemia because it
Stimulates the breakdown of liver glycogen
Blood that is found in the stools of a patient suffering from colitis would be
Grossly bloody
Glyburide and Glipizide are exampes of
Oral hypoglycemic agents
Bleeding from esophagitis is typically
Coffee ground emesis
Hemorrhoids are the result of
Swollen veins in the rectal area
Routes other than the subcutaneous route for administering epinephrine during a severe allergic reaction shoud be guided by medical direction
true
Hypotension in an anaphylactic reaction primarily occurs from
Capillary permeability and vasodilation
The most life-threatening result of an anaphylactic reaction is
Airway edema and obstructin
the chemical released in an anaphylactic reaction that causes rapid increased vascular permeability and capillary and venule dilation is
Histamine
A condition common to women in their 40's with the symptoms of weight gain , hair loss, hoarse voice and fatigue could be
Myxedema
gastrointestinal effects of an anaphylactic reaction may include
Diarrhea
Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia may include
Combative behavior
Cushing's syndrome can be caused by
Adrenal Tumor
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the
Gallbladder
The faster an allergic response occurs after the introduction to the body, the more severe the reaction
true
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNK) differs from diabetic ketoacidosis in that the patient with HHNK
Has higher serum glucose levels
addison's disease is potentially life threatening due to a decrease in
Steroid production
Unlike epididymitis testicular torsion
Is not typically associated with a fever
Of the following routes of introduction of an antigen in anaphylaxis which produces the most rapid immune response
Injection
Which of the following conditions is present due to the decreased production of corticosteroids
Addison's
Glucocorticoid steroids are secreted by the
Adrenal cortex
Conditions that predispose a person to esophageal varices include
Chronic alsoholism