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6 Cards in this Set

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What are the steps to achieve an excellent memory?
1. Develop appetite for knowledge. (strong motivation is more important than IQ)
2. Find what areas of knowledge are more important to you.
3. Find sources of information.
4. Repeat the material at proper times.
5. Do repetitions every day, it has to become a habit.
What are the twenty rules of formulating knowledge?
1. Do not learn if you do not understand.

2. Learn before you memorize - build the picture of the whole before you dismember it into simple items. If the whole shows holes, review it again!

3. Build upon the basics - never jump both feet into a complex manual because you may never see the end. Well remembered basics will help the remaining knowledge easily fit in.

4. Stick to the minimum information principle - if you continue forgetting an item, try to make it as simple as possible. If it does not help, see the remaining rules (cloze deletion, graphics, mnemonic techniques, converting sets into enumerations, etc.)

5. Cloze deletion is easy and effective - completing a deleted word or phrase is not only an effective way of learning. Most of all, it greatly speeds up formulating knowledge and is highly recommended for beginners.

6. Use imagery - a picture is worth a thousand words

7. Use mnemonic techniques - read about peg lists and mind maps. Study the books by Tony Buzan.

8. Learn how to convert memories into funny pictures. You won't have problems with phone numbers and complex figures

9. Graphic deletion is as good as cloze deletion - obstructing parts of a picture is great for learning anatomy, geography and more.

10. Avoid sets - larger sets are virtually un-memorizable unless you convert them into enumerations!

11. Avoid enumerations - enumerations are also hard to remember but can be dealt with using cloze deletion.

12. Combat interference - even the simplest items can be completely intractable if they are similar to other items.

13. Use examples, context cues, vivid illustrations, refer to emotions, and to your personal life.

14. Optimize wording - like you reduce mathematical equations, you can reduce complex sentences into smart, compact and enjoyable maxims.

15. Refer to other memories - building memories on other memories generates a coherent and hermetic structure that forgetting is less likely to affect.

16. Build upon the basics and use planned redundancy to fill in the gaps.

17. Personalize and provide examples - personalization might be the most effective way of building upon other memories. Your personal life is a gold mine of facts and events to refer to. As long as you build a collection for yourself, use personalization richly to build upon well established memories.

18. Rely on emotional states - emotions are related to memories. If you learn a fact in the sate of sadness, you are more likely to recall it if when you are sad. Some memories can induce emotions and help you employ this property of the brain in remembering

19. Context cues simplify wording - providing context is a way of simplifying memories, building upon earlier knowledge and avoiding interference.

20. Redundancy does not contradict minimum information principle - some forms of redundancy are welcome. There is little harm in memorizing the same fact as viewed from different angles.

21. Passive and active approach is particularly practicable in learning word-pairs.

Provide sources - sources help you manage the learning process, updating your knowledge, judging its reliability, or importance.

Provide date stamping - time stamping is useful for volatile knowledge that changes in time.

Prioritize - effective learning is all about prioritizing.

In incremental reading you can start from badly formulated knowledge and improve its shape as you proceed with learning. You can review pieces of knowledge again, split it into parts, reformulate, re prioritize, or delete.
What is a trained memory?
Is a memory that can consciously store, retain, and recall past experiences or information, when you want to.
Memory is based on what three concepts?
1. Observation
2. Association
3. Imagination
What is a good test for true genius?
Predictive powers, and they are also the cornerstone of success in business. Those who can see the technologies and trends that will shape a market in 3-5 years are posed to do well. Here comes the value of basic sciences such as math and physics in extracting trends from the chaos of the modern world. The value of math and physics comes from the fact that it equips you with highly abstract rules with a wide range of applications. This is why it pays highly to learn artificial intelligence, neural networks, sociology, neurophysiology, systems theory, statistics, evolutionary psychology, history, etc. Those sciences formulate rules that make it possible to better understand the reality, and most of all, draw conclusions about the reality
"I am not young enough to know everything"
Oscar Wilde